Volume 66, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 2542-6583
  • E-ISSN: 2590-3268


Under the influence of Calvinism, the musical situation in the Protestant churches in the Netherlands was for a long time marked by sobriety, with attention focused on congregational singing. In the 20th century, church music gained importance through a dominant flow of Lutheran influence. Generally, the liturgical movement highlighted the role of music in worship. The Lutheran church musician Willem Mudde successfully called attention to the German church music reform movement. Inspired by the writings of the German theologian Oskar Söhngen, he strived to apply the ideals and practices of this German movement to the Dutch Protestant churches. He succeeded through his zeal and organisational skills, not only in the Lutheran church but also in other Protestant churches. The idealistic character and educational aims of the movement, however, could not offset the growing individualism and the ongoing crisis in the churches.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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