‘Ik haat hen met een volkomen haat’ (Psalm 139:21-22) | Amsterdam University Press Journals Online
Volume 61, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 2542-6583
  • E-ISSN: 2590-3268


In this article the offensive prayer of Psalm 139:21-22 is investigated with regard to its language, context and intentions. It is argued that the central notion of ‘hatred’ does not necessarily imply malicious intentions. Subsequently, vv. 21-22 are shown to form an integral part of this psalm, which is a meditative confession with three specific theological motives. Within this context, vv. 21-22 function as a . The poet sees hating the enemy primarily as the opposite of his turning and dedication to YHWH. Next, the utterance of vv. 21-22 is examined within its own conceptual and spiritual framework, and its own religious and social life-scene. Finally, the question is discussed whether such prayers can still have a function in today’s Christian faith and worship.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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