2004
Volume 24, Issue 3/4
  • ISSN: 1388-3186
  • E-ISSN: 2352-2437

Abstract

Abstract

In the past decade, animal and antiracist politics are on the rise in the Netherlands and Belgium. Both integrate feminism into their political practice, albeit in divergent ways. Nevertheless, their core concerns are generally viewed as antithetical on a conceptual, normative, and politically practical level. This paper explores the extent to which feminist, antiracist, and animal concerns are (in)commensurable. Coupling the ecofeminist analysis of dualism developed by Val Plumwood with recent developments in black studies advanced by Claire Jean Kim and Zakiyyah Iman Jackson, processes of animalisation and dehumanisation are scrutinised. It is demonstrated that the onto-epistemological categories of gender, race, and animality connect on the level of being subjected to the logic of domination exemplary of Western thought (1), and on the level of being the abject yet constitutive Others of the normative category of ‘the human’ (2). Subsequently, to build bridges between feminist, antiracist, and animal advocacy movements, it is argued that animal advocates need to critically question the assumption of ‘human privilege’ and stop using slavery analogies, while feminists and antiracists should aspire to divest from human supremacy. A new approach to collective liberation in the Low Countries is needed, one that acknowledges the interconnectedness of gender, race, and animality alike.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/TVGN.2021.3/4.009.JUNG
2021-12-01
2022-01-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Besteman, C. (2019). Militarized global apartheid. Current Anthropology, 60(19), 26–38.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. BIJ1. (2021). Allemaal anders, maar toch gelijkwaardig. Rotterdam: BIJ1.
  3. Boisseron, B. (2018). Afro-Dog: Blackness and the animal question. New York: Columbia University Press.
  4. Césaire, A. (1950). Discourse on colonialism. New York: Monthly Review Press.
  5. Deckha, M. (2021). Animals as legal beings: Contesting anthropocentric legal orders. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  6. DierAnimal. (2021). Manifest van de partij. Retrieved from https://www.dieranimal.be/nl/manifest-van-de-partij
  7. Essed, P., & Hoving, I. (Eds). (2014). Dutch racism. Amsterdam: Rodopi B.V.
  8. Fanon, F. (1952). Black skin, white masks. New York: Grove Press.
  9. Francione, G.L., & Garner, R. (2010). The animal rights debate: Abolition or regulation?New York: Columbia University Press.
  10. Gaard, G. (2011). Ecofeminism revisited: Rejecting essentialism and re-placing species in a material feminist environmentalism. Feminist Formations, 23(2), 26–53.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gilroy, P. (2002). Against race. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  12. Gordon, L. (1995). Fanon and the crisis of European man. Milton Park: Routledge.
  13. Hage, G. (2017). Is racism an environmental threat?Cambridge: Polity.
  14. Het Actiefonds. (2020). Black queer and trans resistance organiseert de eerste Black Pride Nederland. Retrieved from https://hetactiefonds.nl/actie/black-pride-nl-protest-against-anti-black-queer-trans-violence
  15. Jackson, J.P., & Weidman, N.M. (2005). The origins of scientific racism. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 50, 66–79.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Jackson, Z.I. (2020). Becoming human: Matter and meaning in an antiblack world. New York: NYU PRESS.
  17. Jung, M. (2021). The emancipation of animals will not be built on racism. In I.Adams, T.Adefioye, S.D’Agostino, N.Schuermans, & F.Trauner (Eds.), Migration, equality & racism (pp. 203–206). Brussels: VUBPRESS.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Jung, M., & Withaeckx, S. (2021). Questioning ‘the human’ in humanism. In I.Adams, T.Adefioye, S.D’Agostino, N.Schuermans, & F.Trauner (Eds.), Migration, equality & racism (pp. 31–36). Brussels: VUBPRESS.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Kim, C.J. (2011). Moral extensionism or racist exploitation? The use of Holocaust and slavery analogies in the animal liberation movement. New Political Science, 33(3), 311–333.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Kim, C.J. (2017). ‘Murder and mattering in Harambe’s House’. Politics and Animals, 3, 1–15.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Ko, A. (2020). Racism as zoological witchcraft. New York: Lantern Books.
  22. Ko, A., & Ko, S. (2017). Aphro-ism. New York: Lantern Books.
  23. Koffeman, N. (2018). De zwakste verdedigen tegen het recht van de sterkste. Het belang van de Partij voor de Dieren. In F.Wielinga, C.van Baalen, & M.Wilp (Eds.), Een versplinterd landschap (pp. 145–166). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Mathews, F. (2017). The dilemma of dualism. In S.MacGregor (Ed.), Routledge handbook of gender and environment (pp. 54–70). Milton Park: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Memmi, A. (1957). The colonizer and the colonized. London: Profile Books Ltd.
  26. Modest, W., & Lelijveld, R. (Eds.). (2018). Woorden doen ertoe. Amsterdam: Nationaal Museum van Wereldculturen.
  27. Oudenampsen, M. (2013). ‘Richtingenstrijd – De conservatieve wending van de PvdA.’Socialisme & Democratie, 70(3), 23–29.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Oudenampsen, M. (2018). De conservatieve revolte. Nijmegen: Uitgeverij Vantilt.
  29. Partij voor de dieren. (2021). Plan B: Idealisme is het nieuwe realisme. Den Haag: Partij voor de Dieren.
  30. Plumwood, V. (1988). Women, humanity and nature. Radical Philosophy, 48(16), 16–24.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Plumwood, V. (1993). Feminism and the mastery of nature. New York: Routledge.
  32. Schueller, M.J. (2005). Analogy and (white) feminist theory: Thinking race and the color of the cyborg body. Signs, 31(1), 63–92.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Scott, D. (2000). The re-enchantment of humanism: An interview with Sylvia Wynter. Small Axe, 8(1), 119–207.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Singer, P. (1975/2002). Animal liberation. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
  35. Spiegel, M. (1988). The dreaded comparison: Human and animal slavery. London: Heretic Books.
  36. Thieme, M. (2017, December12). Geef vrouwen na 100 jaar een volwaardige stem. De Volkskrant. Retrieved from https://www.volkskrant.nl/columns-opinie/marianne-thieme-geef-vrouwen-na-100-jaar-een-volwaardige-stem~b7bf7cf2
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Warren, C.L. (2018). Ontological terror: Blackness, nihilism, and emancipation. Durham: Duke University Press.
  38. Weheliye, A.G. (2014). Habeas viscus: Racializing assemblages, biopolitics, and black feminist theories of the human. Durham: Duke University Press.
  39. Weiner, M.F., & Báez, A.C., (Eds.). (2018). Smash the pillars: Decoloniality and the imagery of color in the Dutch Kingdom. Lanham: Lexington Books.
  40. Wollstonecraft, M. (1792). A vindication of the rights of woman: With strictures on political and moral subjects. Boston: Independently published.
  41. Wynter, S. (1984). The ceremony must be found: After humanism. boundary 2, 12(3), 19–70.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Wynter, S. (2003). Unsettling the coloniality of being/power/truth/freedom: Towards the human, after man, its overrepresentation—an argument. CR: The New Centennial Review, 3(3), 257–337.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/TVGN.2021.3/4.009.JUNG
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error