2004
Volume 25, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 1388-3186
  • E-ISSN: 2352-2437

Abstract

Abstract

This article discusses the history of FORT (Feministische Oefengroepen Radicale Therapie), a Dutch ‘consciousness-raising’ movement during the era of second-wave feminism. In comparison to other consciousness-raising groups, FORT groups focused even more on exploring the personal in a political context. Still, contemporary feminists as well as historiographers have argued that the FORT groups were mostly spiritual rather than political. Based on oral history interviews with former FORT women, an analysis of written primary sources, and literature study, this article further explores this paradox. It is argued that, for the women involved, the ‘internal’ spiritual path of action and the ‘external’ activist path of action were very much intertwined, and both paths were political. This interpretation challenges the dichotomy of spiritual versus political, and once again confirms that the personal is, in fact, political.

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