Vrijmaking (1944) in oorlogstijd | Amsterdam University Press Journals Online
Volume 42, Issue 90
  • ISSN: 0923-7771
  • E-ISSN: 2665-9492



In 1944, the most difficult year of the war for the Netherlands, a conflict in the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands resulted in a split, the Vrijmaking. Often people have wondered – to say the least – why the Reformed were busy with their internal struggles in a time when national suffering and conflict required all hands to be on deck? A common explanation refers to innere Emigration: focusing on ecclesial issues was a kind of escape from national distress. In church they were like under a glass bell. The participants were aware of the incongruency of the situation, but proceeded with the Vrijmaking nonetheless. Van Langevelde proposes to replace the image of the glass bell by a bee hive, a more porous distinction between church and nation.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): Reformed Churches; religious conflict; Second World War; Vrijmaking
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