Volume 53, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0165-8204
  • E-ISSN: 2667-1573



During the early forties AD the Roman army built several timber auxiliary forts on the southern bank of the Lower Rhine. Remains of nine timber forts and a fortlet, sometimes well preserved, have been found in the western part of the Netherlands, in the Rhine delta: at Vechten (Bunnik), Utrecht, De Meern, Woerden, Bodegraven, Zwammerdam, Alphen aan den Rijn, Leiden-Roomburg and Valkenburg (South Holland) and the fortlet at Valkenburg-Marktveld. There also are indications of military presence further upstream, but there are hardly any traces to be found. The Rhine has destroyed most of the evidence, except for dredge finds and some structures in Arnhem-Meinerswijk and Herwen-De Bijland. Wood was available in the surroundings and it was used for building the forts. In the last quarter of the second century AD most of these auxiliary forts were partly rebuilt in stone. This paper gives an overview of the recent thoughts on the Roman forts on the Lower Rhine in the Netherlands in their political context.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error