2004
Volume 24, Issue 3/4
  • ISSN: 1388-3186
  • E-ISSN: 2352-2437

Abstract

Abstract

This article analyses the understanding of sex trafficking in the League of Nations, with a focus on how the League collected data, critically dealt with its own data collection, and created a particular image of sex trafficking. I argue that a shift can be discerned in the debates within the Advisory Committee on Traffic of Women and Children, which was responsible for the study of sex trafficking in the League of Nations. Starting in 1921, the Advisory Committee focused on the mobility of women as a major factor in sex trafficking. After an ‘undercover investigation’ in 1927, their attention shifted to security. When the Advisory Committee researched the causes of prostitution in 1934, it finally considered prevention. The Advisory Committee was faced with different challenges and tensions that shaped the knowledge that it produced about sex trafficking. By analysing the minutes of their meetings, I lay bare that process of knowledge creation. Through the method of frame analysis and the concept of ‘biopolitics’, I intend to add to the existing historiographical scholarship on transnational cooperation and the League of Nations with an intersectional approach.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/TVGN.2021.3/4.005.POST
2021-12-01
2022-01-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Andrijasevic, R. (2007). Beautiful dead bodies: Gender, migration and representation in anti-trafficking campaigns. Feminist Review 86,(1), 24–44.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Camiscioli, E. (2019). Trafficking histories: Women’s migration and sexual labor in the early twentieth century. Deportate, esuli, profughe. Rivista telematica di studi sulla memoria femminile, 40, 1–13.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Dykmann, K. (2015). How international was the Secretariat of the League of Nations?The International History Review, 37, 721–744.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Goto-Shibata, H. (2020). The League of Nations and the East Asian imperial order, 1920–1946. New directions in East Asian history. Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan.
  5. Gorman, D. (2008). Empire, internationalism, and the campaign against the traffic in women and children in the 1920s. Twentieth Century British History 19, 186–216.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Grant, K., Levine, P., & Trentmann, F. (Eds.). (2007). Beyond sovereignty: Britain, empire and transnationalism, c. 1860–1950. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  7. Hetherington, P. (2014). Victims of the social temperament: Prostitution, migration and the traffic in women from Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union, 1885–1935 (Doctoral dissertation). Harvard University, Cambridge.
  8. Jackson, S., & O’Malley, A. (Eds.). (2018). The institution of international order: From the League of Nations to the United Nations. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Knepper, P. (2011). International crime in the 20th century. The League of Nations era, 1919–1939. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  10. Knepper, P. (2014). International criminals: The League of Nations, the traffic in women and the press. Media History, 20(4), 400–415.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Kozma, L. (2017). Global women, colonial ports: Prostitution in the interwar Middle East. New York: State University Press.
  12. League of Nations. (1921a, 30June–5July). Records of the International Conference on Traffic in Women and Children. No. C.484.M.339.1921.IV. League of Nations Archives, Geneva.
  13. League of Nations. (1921b, 5August). International Conference on Traffic in Women and Children. General report on the work of the conference. No. C.227.M.166.1921.IV. League of Nations Archives, Geneva.
  14. League of Nations. (1922, 10November). Reply regarding Baghdad, to the questionnaire issued by the Secretariat of the League. No. C.399.M190.1922.IV. League of Nations Archives, Geneva.
  15. League of Nations. (1923, 22–27March). Minutes of the second session. No. C.225.M.129.1923.IV. Retrieved from https://biblio-archive.unog.ch/Dateien/CouncilMSD/C-225-M-129-1923-IV_EN.pdf
  16. League of Nations. (1924). Questionnaire for annual report. No. C.217.M.L.1924.IV. League of Nations Archives, Geneva.
  17. League of Nations. (1927a,17February). Report of the special body of experts on traffic in women and children. Part one. No. C.52.M.52.1927.IV. League of Nations Archives, Geneva.
  18. League of Nations. (1927b, 25–30April). Minutes of the sixth session. No. C.338.M.113.1927.IV. Retrieved from https://biblio-archive.unog.ch/Dateien/CouncilMSD/C-338-M-113-1927-IV_EN.pdf
  19. League of Nations. (1927c, 10May). Report on the work of the sixth session. No. C.221.M.60.1927.IV. Retrieved from https://biblio-archive.unog.ch/Dateien/CouncilMSD/C-221-M-60-1927-IV_EN.pdf
  20. League of Nations. (1927d, 27November). Report of the special body of experts on traffic in women and children. Part two. No. C.52(2).M.52(1).1927.IV. League of Nations Archives, Geneva.
  21. League of Nations. (1928, 12–17March). Minutes of the seventh session. No. C.184.M.59.1928.IV. Retrieved from https://biblio-archive.unog.ch/Dateien/CouncilMSD/C-184-M-59-1928-IV_EN.pdf
  22. League of Nations. (1929, 19–27April). Minutes of the eighth session. No. C.294.M.97.1929.IV. Retrieved from https://biblio-archive.unog.ch/Dateien/CouncilMSD/C-294-M-97-1929-IV_EN.pdf
  23. League of Nations. (1932a, 4–9April). Report on the work of the eleventh session. No. C.390.M.220.1932.IV. Retrieved from https://biblio-archive.unog.ch/Dateien/CouncilMSD/C-390-M-220-1932-IV_EN.pdf
  24. League of Nations. (1932b, 10December). Commission of enquiry into traffic in women and children in the East. Report to the Council. No. C.849.M393.1932.IV. League of Nations Archives, Geneva.
  25. League of Nations. (1933, 6–8April). Report on the work of the twelfth session of the Traffic in Women and Children Committee. No. C.247.M.129.1933.IV. Retrieved from http://biblio-archive.unog.ch/Dateien/CouncilMSD/C-247-M-129-1933-IV_EN.pdf
  26. League of Nations. (1934, 4–7April). Report on the work of the thirteenth session of the Traffic in Women and Children Committee. No. C.149.M.62.1934.IV. Retrieved from https://biblio-archive.unog.ch/Dateien/CouncilMSD/C-149-M-62-1934-IV_EN.pdf
  27. League of Nations. (1936, 20–27April). Report on the work of the fifteenth session of the Traffic in Women and Children Committee. No. C.204.M.127.1936.IV. Retrieved from https://biblio-archive.unog.ch/Dateien/CouncilMSD/C-204-M-127-1936-IV_EN.pdf
  28. Legg, S. (2012). ‘The life of individuals as well as of nations’ International law and the League of Nations’ anti-trafficking governmentalities. Leiden Journal of International Law 25, 647–664.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Leppänen, K. (2007). Movement of women: Trafficking in the interwar era. Women’s Studies International Forum, 30, 523–533.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Limoncelli, S. (2010). The politics of trafficking: The first international movement to combat the sexual exploitation of women. Stanford: University Press.
  31. Marsh, K. (2017). ‘La nouvelle activité des trafiquants de femmes’: France, Le Havre and the politics of trafficking, 1919–1939. Contemporary European History, 26(1), 23–48.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Martínez, J. (2016). Mapping the trafficking of women across colonial Southeast Asia,1600s–1930s. Journal of Global Slavery, 1, 224–247.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Paddle, S. (2003). The limits of sympathy: International feminists and the Chinese ‘slave girl’ campaigns of the 1920s and 1930s. Journal of Colonialism & Colonial History, 4(3).
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Pedersen, S. (2015). The guardians: The League of Nations and the crisis of empire. Oxford: University Press.
  35. Pliley, J. (2010). Claims to protection: The rise and fall of feminist abolitionism in the League of Nations’ Committee on the Traffic in Women and Children, 1919–1936. Journal of Women’s History, 22, 90–113.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Richard, A. (2012). Competition and complementarity: Civil society networks and the question of decentralizing the League of Nations. Journal of Global History 7, 233–256.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Rodogno, D., Struck, B., & Vogel, J. (Eds.). (2015). Shaping the transnational sphere: Experts, networks and issues from the 1840s to the 1930s. New York: Berghahn.
  38. Rodríguez Garcia, M., Chaumont, J., & Servais, P. (Eds.). (2017). Trafficking in women, 1924–1926: The Paul Kinsie Reports for the League of Nations. Geneva: United Nations Publications.
  39. Rodríguez Garcia, M. (2012). The League of Nations and the moral recruitment of women. International Review of Social History, 57, 97–128.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Save the Children. (2019, 25July). One in four victims of trafficking and exploitation in Europe are children. Retrieved from www.savethechildren.net/news/one-four-victims-trafficking-and-exploitation-europe-are-children
  41. Schrover, M. (2011). Problematisation and particularisation: The Bertha Hertogh story. Tijdschrift voor sociale en economische geschiedenis, 8(2), 3–31.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Zahra, T. (2016). The great departure: Mass migration from Eastern Europe and the making of the free world. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/TVGN.2021.3/4.005.POST
Loading
/content/journals/10.5117/TVGN.2021.3/4.005.POST
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error