2004
Volume 24, Issue 3/4
  • ISSN: 1388-3186
  • E-ISSN: 2352-2437

Abstract

Abstract

This article explores racial performance and the hypersexualisation of Black women in the Dutch sex industry. In the global sex trade, racialised women are constantly regarded as victims of sex trafficking without any agency, particularly migrant sex workers in European countries. While there is plenty of literature on how racial hierarchy affects Black women in the U.S. sex industry, such relevant research is lacking in Europe. In this explorative research, I deconstruct the images of Black women and set its narrative in the Netherlands. With semi-directive and in-depth interviews, I intend to highlight how Black sex workers perform images of Blackness and racial stereotypes when seducing male clients. My theoretical framework includes Patricia Hill Collins’s ‘controlling images’, Gloria Wekker’s ‘cultural archive’, Philomena Essed’s ‘everyday racism’, and Sunita Patel’s ‘racial performance’.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/TVGN.2021.3/4.006.PAUL
2021-12-01
2022-01-19
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Agustin, L.M. (2008). Sex at the margins: Migration, labour markets and the rescue industry. London: Zed Books Ltd.
  2. Baskerville, N. (2014). Twerk it: Deconstructing racial and gendered implications of Black women’s bodies through representations of twerking (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Institutional Scholarship.
  3. Bijnaar, A. (n.d.). Blaka Lola (Nicolina E.C. Sant). In Encyclopedia of Afro European Studies. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediaofafroeuropeanstudies.eu/encyclopedia/blaka-lola-nicolina-e-c-sant
  4. Brooks, S. (2010). Hypersexualization and the dark body: Race and inequality among Black and Latina women in the exotic dance industry. Sexuality Research & Social Policy, 7, 70–80.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. UK Network of Sex Work Projects. (2008). Working with sex workers: Outreach. Good Practice Guidance Series. London: UK NSWP.
  6. Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed approaches. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  7. Ditmore, M.H. (2006). Encyclopedia of prostitution and sex work. Westport: Greenwood Press.
  8. Doezema, J. (1999). Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of white slavery in contemporary discourses of trafficking in women. Gender Issues, 18(1), 23–50.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Essed, P. (1991). Understanding everyday racism: An interdisciplinary theory. Newbury Park: Sage.
  10. Foster, L. (2006). AS/SOSI4440 B — Racialization, discrimination and the law: ‘What is Racialization?’ [Syllabus]. Department of Public Policy & Administration, York University.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Hill Collins, P. (2009). Black feminist thought: Knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment. New York: Routledge.
  12. Hrabovský, M. (2013). Concept of ‘BLACKNESS’ in theories of race. Asian and African Studies, 22(1), 65–88.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hunter, M.L. (2002). ‘If you’re light you’re alright’: Light skin color as social capital for women of color. Gender & Society, 16, 175–193.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Janssen, M., & Polanía Molina, F. (1998). I never thought this would happen to me, prostitution and traffic in Latin American women in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Fundación Esperanza.
  15. Jones, A. (2015). For black models scroll down: Webcam modeling and the racialization of erotic labor. Sexuality & Culture, 19(4), 776–799.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Kempadoo, K., & Doezema, J. (1998). Global sex workers: Rights, resistance, and redefinition. New York: Routledge.
  17. Kempadoo, K. (2004). Sexing the Caribbean: Gender, race and sexual labor (1st ed.). New York: Routledge.
  18. Kubik, G. (1999). Africa and the blues. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press.
  19. Lomax, T. (2018). Jezebel unhinged: Loosing the Black female body in religion and culture. Durham: Duke University Press.
  20. Leath, S., Jerald, M.C., Perkins, T., & Jones, M.K. (2021). A qualitative exploration of Jezebel stereotype endorsement and sexual behaviors among Black college women. Journal of Black Psychology, 47(4–5), 244–283.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Miller-Young, M. (2010). Putting hypersexuality to work: Black women and illicit eroticism in pornography. Sexualities, 13(2), 219–235.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Nash, J.C. (2014). The black body in ecstasy: Reading race, reading pornography. Durham: Duke University Press.
  23. Norwood, C.R. (2018). Decolonizing my hair, unshackling my curls: An autoethnography on what makes my natural hair journey a Black feminist statement. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 20, 69–84.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Oxford Lexico. (2020). Stereotype. Lexico.com. Retrieved from https://www.lexico.com/definition/stereotype
  25. Patel, S. (2005). Performative aspects of race: ‘Arab, Muslim, and South Asian’ racial formation after September 11. UCLA Asian Pacific American Law> Journal, 10, 61–87.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Pinho, P. (2010). Mama Africa: Reinventing Blackness in Bahia. Durham: Duke University Press.
  27. Uzogara, E.E., & Jackson, J.S. (2016). Perceived skin tone discrimination across contexts: African American women’s reports. Race and Social Problems, 8(2), 147–159.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Valadier, C. (2018). Migration and sex work through a gender perspective. Contexto Internacional, 40(3), 501–524.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Wekker, G. (2016). White innocence: Paradoxes of colonialism and race. Durham: Duke University Press.
  30. World Music Central. (n.d). Surinamese music. Retrieved from https://worldmusiccentral.org/world-music-resources/musician-biographies/surinamese-music
  31. Wright, M.M. (2004). Becoming Black: Creating identity in the African diaspora. Durham: Duke University Press.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/TVGN.2021.3/4.006.PAUL
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error