Volume 113, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-5275
  • E-ISSN: 2352-1244



In his monumental history of philosophy, the eminent scholar Jürgen Habermas has managed to provide us with a thorough and very nuanced overview of thousands of years of western thought. The famous philosopher paints an impressive picture of the vicissitudes of the modernisation processes featuring in the history of western philosophy. The of Habermas’s narrative is the way in which throughout history philosophy dealt with the question concerning the relationship between faith and reason. When it comes to the Middle Ages, it is not surprising that Habermas should focus on the opposition between Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham. However, by confining himself to the concepts of and , he completely overlooks thirteenth-century developments in the domain of logic. To take note of these developments is fundamental to understand the process of modernisation in philosophy. The aim of this paper is to fill in the gap, by concentrating on thirteenth-century discussions of necessity and (logical) consequences.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


  1. Braakhuis, H.A.G.(1979)De 13de eeuwse tractaten over syncategorematische termen (2 delen). Deel 1: Inleidende Studie. Deel 2: Uitgave van Nicolaas van Parijs’ Sincategoremata. Nijmegen (diss).
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Ebbesen, S., en F.Goubier (red.) (2010)A Catalogue of 13th-Century Sophismata (2 delen). Parijs: Vrin.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Habermas, J.(2019)Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie (2 delen). Deel 1: Die okzidentale Konstellation von Glauben und Wissen. Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Henricus de Gandavo (adscr.) (2010)Syncategoremata. Ediderunt Braakhuis, H.A.G., G. Etzkorn, G. A. Wilson. Leuven: Leuven University Press.
  5. Iwakuma, Y.(1993)Parvipontani’s Thesis ex impossibili quidlibet sequitur: Comments on the Sources of the Thesis from the Twelfth Century, in: Jacobi (red.), pp. 123-151.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Jacobi, K. (red.) (1993)Argumentationstheorie: Scholastische Forschungen zu den logischen und semantischen Regeln korrekten Folgerns. Leiden / Köln / New York: Brill.
  7. Martin, C.(2018)Natural Consequence in the Thirteenth Century, Vivarium56, 340-366.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Nicolaas van Parijs, Sincategoremata (= Braakhuis (1979), Deel 2).
  9. PetrusHispanus(1992). Syncategoreumata. First Critical Edition, with an Introduction and Indexes by L.M. de Rijk, and with an English Translation by Joke Spruyt. Leiden / Köln / New York: Brill.
  10. Read, S.(2019)Medieval Theories: Properties of Terms, in: Edward N.Zalta (red.) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2019 Edition), URL = <https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2019/entries/medieval-terms/>.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Rijk, L.M. de (1962-1967) Logica modernorum:A Contribution to the History of Early Terminist Logic (2 delen). Assen: Van Gorcum.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Rijk, L.M. de(1977)Middeleeuwse Wijsbegeerte: Traditie en vernieuwing. Assen: Van Gorcum.
  13. Rijk, L.M. de(1987)War Ockham ein Antimetaphysiker? Eine semantische Betrachtung, in: Beckmann, J.P., L.Honnefelder, G.Schrimpf, en G.Wieland (red.), Philosophie im Mittelalter: Entwicklungslinien und Paradigmen. Hamburg: Felix Meiner Verlag, pp. 312-328.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Spruyt, J.(1993)Thirteenth-Century Positions on the Rule‘Ex impossibili sequitur quidlibet’, in: Jacobi (red.), pp. 161-193.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Spruyt, J.(1994)Thirteenth-Century Discussions on Modal Terms, Vivarium32, 196-226.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Thomasde Aquino(1888)Summa theologiae, pars prima (= Sancti Thomae de Aquino Opera omnia, iussu Leonis XIII P. M. edita, tomus IV).
    [Google Scholar]
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error