2004
Volume 31, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0960-2720
  • E-ISSN: 2666-9730

Abstract

Summary

Roberto Bellarmino was the defender of Roman Catholic orthodoxy as it was re-affirmed at the Council of Trent over against the critical claims made by the various strands of the Protestant Reformation. This paper will provide a brief introduction to Bellarmine’s life, especially as far as his early engagements with Protestantism are concerned. Then it will sketch the apologetic import of his critical interaction with Protestant theology as it is presented in his , namely the . The question will be asked if, and in which ways, articles 9 and 10 of the Apostles’ Creed are the central points of conflict between Rome and the Reformation. Until now this issue has not received sufficient attention and the present paper will try to address it. Bellarmine worked hard to achieve his objectives by way of winning the ‘war’ with theological arguments. For him it was either Rome or the Reformation ().

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/EJT2022.1.003.CHIR
2022-02-01
2023-01-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Allison, Gregg R., Roman Catholic Theology and Practice. An Evangelical Assessment (Wheaton: Crossway, 2014).
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bavinck, Herman, Reformed Dogmatics Volume 1, ed. JohnBolt (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003).
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bellarmine, Robert, Spiritual Writings, edited by J.P.Donnelly S.J. and R.JTeske S.J. (Mahwah: Paulist Press, 1989).
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bellarmino, Roberto, Autobiografia (1613), ed. GustavoGaleota S.J. (Brescia: Morcelliana, 1999).
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bellarmine, Robert, Controversies of the Christian Faith (Saddle River: Keep the Faith, 2016).
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bellarmine, Robert, On the Most Holy Sacrifice of the Mass (Columbia: Mediatrix Press, 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Bellarmine, Robert, Doctrina Christiana. The Timeless Catechism of St. Robert Bellarmine (Columbia: Mediatrix Press, 2020).
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bergoglio, Jorge Maria, Chi sonoi gesuiti (Bologna: EMI, 2014).
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bourdin, Bernard, The Theological-Political Origins of the Modern State: The controversy between James I of England and Cardinal Bellarmine (Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 2010).
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Broderick, James, Robert Bellarmine: Saint and Scholar (Westminster: Catholic Book Club, 1961).
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Broeyer, Frits G.M., ‘Traces of the Rise of Reformed Scholasticism in the Polemical Theologian William Whitaker (1548-1595)’ in W.J.van Asselt and EefDekker (eds), Reformation and Scholasticism. An Ecumenical Enterprise (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001) 155-180.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Carson, Herbert, The Faith of the Vatican. A Fresh Look at Roman Catholicism (Darlington: Evangelical Press, 1996).
    [Google Scholar]
  13. De Chirico, Leonardo, ‘A Window into the Theological Vision of Pope Francis’, Christian Research Journal38/06 (2015) 12-19.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. De Chirico, Leonardo, ‘Is the Nicene Faith the Basis for Ecumenism?‘, Vatican Files 160 (1April2019), at https://vaticanfiles.org/en/2019/04/vf160/ (accessed 28/09/2021).
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Dekker, Eef, ‘An ecumenical debate between Reformation and Counter-Reformation? Bellarmine and Ames on liberum arbitrium’ in W.J.van Asselt and EefDekker (eds), Reformation and Scholasticism. An Ecumenical Enterprise (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2001) 141-154.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Denzinger, Heinrich, Enchiridion SymbolorumDefinitionum et Declarationum de Rebus Fidei et Morum, 37thedn by PeterHünermann (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 1991).
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Domenici, Giuseppe, ‘La genesi, le vicende ed igiudizi delle controversie bellarminiane’, Gregoranium 2.2 (1921) 513-542.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. D’Souza, Dinesh, ‘The Catholic Protestant Debate: Robert Bellarmine’s Spirited Polemics’, Crisis Magazine (December1990) at https://www.crisismagazine.com/1990/the-catholic-protestant-debate-robert-bellarmines-spirited-polemics (accessed 10/11/2021).
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dulles, Avery, ‘Saint Robert Bellarmine: A Moderate in a Disputatious Age’, Crisis Magazine (December1994) 39-44.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Galeota, Gustavo, ‘La teologia controversistica’ in GiuseppeOcchipinti (ed.), Storia della teologia Vol. 2 (Roma: Edizioni Dehoniane; Bologna: EDB, 1996) 523-570.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Giustiniani, Pasquale, ‘Sondaggi sulla predicazione capuana di Roberto Bellarmino’, Asprenas66.1 (2019) 65-75.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hägglund, Bengt, ‘Polemics and Dialogue in John Gerhard's Confessio catholica’, Lutheran Quarterly14 (2000) 159-172.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lyon, Gregory B., ‘Baudouin, Flacius and the Plan for the Magdeburg Centuries’, Journal of the History of Ideas64.2 (2003) 253-272.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Mayer, Thomas F., ‘The Roman Inquisition’s Precept to Galileo (1616)’, The British Journal for the History of Science43.3 (2010) 327-351.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Messina, Giuseppe, ‘L’attività apologetica di San Roberto Bellarmino’, Scuola cattolica59 (1931/2) 321-333.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Mondrone, Domenico, ‘San Roberto Card. Bellarmino, il principe dei controversisti’, Vita e pensiero21 (1930) 578-585.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Motta, Franco, Bellarmino. Una teologia politica della Controriforma (Brescia: Morcelliana, 2005).
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Noll, Mark, and CarolynNystrom, Is the Reformation Over? An Evangelical Assessment of Roman Catholicism (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005).
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Ó Hannracháin, Tadhg, ‘Early Modern Catholic Perspectives on the Biblical Text: The Bellarmine and Whitaker Debate’ in RobertArmstrong and TadhgÓ Hannracháin (eds), The English Bible in the Early Modern World (Leiden: Brill, 2018) 104-130.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. O’Malley, John W., Vatican I. The Council and the Making of the Ultramontane Church (Cambridge, MS: Belknap Press, 2018).
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Pani, Giancarlo, Roberto Bellarmino, cercatore della verità (Palermo: Pietro Vittorietti, 2021).
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Perrottet, Luc, ‘Un exemple de polémique religieuse à la fin du XVIe siècle: la défense de la tradition par Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) et la réplique calviniste’, Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie Troisième série 114.4 (1982) 395-413.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Richgels, Robert W., ‘Scholasticism Meets Humanism in the Counter-Reformation. The Clash of Cultures in Robert Bellarmine’s Use of Calvin in the Controversies’, Sixteenth Century Journal6.1 (1975) 53-66.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Richgels, Robert W., ‘The Pattern of Controversy in a Counter-Reformation Classic: The Controversies of Robert Bellarmine’, Sixteenth Century Journal11.2 (1980) 3-15.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Springborg, Patricia, ‘Thomas Hobbes and Cardinal Bellarmine’, History of Political Thought16.4 (1995) 503-531.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Sytsma, David S., ‘Thomas Aquinas and Reformed Biblical Interpretation: The Contribution of William Whitaker’ in ManfredSvensson and DavidVan Drunen (eds), Aquinas Among the Protestants (Oxford: Wiley Blackwell, 2018) 49-74.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Turretin, Francis, Institutes of Elenctic Theology, 3 Vols, ed. James T.DennisonJr. (Phillipsburg: Presbyterian &Reformed, 1992-1997).
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Tutino, Stefania, Shadows of Doubt. Language and Truth in Post-Reformation Catholic Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Vilanova, Evangelista, Storia della teologia cristiana, vol. 2 (Italian edition: Roma: Borla, 1994) 377-385.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Von Frentz, Emeric Reitz, Vita del beato Roberto card. Bellarmino della Compagnia di Gesù (Vicenza: Società anonima tipografica, 1923).
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Washburn, Christian D., ‘The Theological Writings of St. Robert Bellarmine’, The Remnant Review4 (2008) 73-100.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Washburn, Christian D., ‘St. Robert Bellarmine on the Infallibility of General Councils of the Church’, Annuarium Historiae Conciliorum42 (2010) 171-192.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Washburn, Christian D., ‘St. Robert Bellarmine on the Authoritative Interpretation of Sacred Scripture’, Gregorianum94.1 (2013) 55-77.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Washburn, Christian D., ‘The Shaping of Modern Catholic Anthropology in the Context of the Counter-Reformation. St. Robert Bellarmine and the Transformative Power of Grace’ in BertramStubenrauch and MichaelSeewald (Hrsg.), Das Menschenbild der Konfessionen – Achillesferse der Ökumene? (Freiburg im Breisgau: Herder, 2015) 217-248.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Washburn, Christian D., ‘St. Robert Bellarmine, Conciliarism and the Limits of Papal Power’, Perichoresis18.6 (2020) 21-40.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Zarra, Titta, ‘Roberto Bellarmino controversialista’, Ecclesia Mater4 (1966) 236-241.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/EJT2022.1.003.CHIR
Loading
/content/journals/10.5117/EJT2022.1.003.CHIR
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error