2004
Volume 34, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0921-5077
  • E-ISSN: 1875-7235

Abstract

Samenvatting

Telewerken is het ‘werken op afstand’ van een bedrijfslocatie, kantoor of opdrachtgever, waarbij de telewerker wordt ondersteund door informatie- en communicatietechnologie (ICT). Vaak gebeurt dit vanuit huis: hiervoor wordt zowel de term ‘thuiswerken’ als ‘telethuiswerken’ gebruikt. In dit artikel worden de belangrijkste ontwikkelingen besproken in de periode vanaf ongeveer 1980 - toen telewerken in de praktijk werd geïntroduceerd - tot aan de coronacrisis begin 2020 - toen thuiswerken sterk werd aanbevolen door de overheid. Tele(thuis)werkers blijken een zeer heterogene verzameling te vormen van werknemers en zelfstandigen. Ten eerste zijn er grote onderlinge verschillen in de locaties waar of van waaruit ze werken. Ze werken thuis of op een eigen kantoor, onderweg naar klanten of opdrachtgevers, of in satellietkantoren, telewerkcentra en openbare ruimten. Bovendien is er sprake van variatie in de tijd die ze op de verschillende locaties doorbrengen. Ten derde zit er veel variatie in de aard en intensiteit van het ICT-gebruik. Van drie (hoofd)typen telewerkers worden in dit artikel de kenmerken en voor- en nadelen beschreven: telethuiswerkers, mobiele telewerkers en zelfstandig werkende telewerkers. Dit artikel sluit af met een discussie over de rol van autonomie bij telewerk, de relatie tussen telewerk en werkintensivering en de optimale intensiteit van telewerken.

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