2004
Volume 38, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0169-2216
  • E-ISSN: 2468-9424

Abstract

Samenvatting

De platformeconomie is in de afgelopen jaren snel gegroeid en verwijst als relatief nieuw paraplubegrip naar verschillende werkfenomenen. Het doel van dit artikel is om een overzicht te bieden van de uiteenlopende benaderingen van platformwerk, inzicht te geven in de vooronderstellingen die deze benaderingen hanteren en aandacht te vragen voor onderzoek naar verwante verschijnselen. Met behulp van een literatuuronderzoek ( = 319) kan onderscheid gemaakt worden tussen bredere en nauwere definities van platformwerk op basis van locatie, tijd, compensatie en de vraag of de platformeconomie een voortzetting of een vervanging is van de deel- en kluseconomieën. Vaak wordt voorondersteld dat het bij platformwerk gaat om betaald werk dat op of via een arbeidsplatform plaatsvindt, maar bredere benaderingen betrekken meerdere typen platformen en typen werk. De enige constante is de bemiddelingsrol van digitale platformen. Door onderscheid te maken tussen platform en kluswerk wordt duidelijk dat platformwerk niet uniek is in de fragmentatie van arbeid, de resulterende werkonzekerheid en de bemiddeling tussen vraag en aanbod.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/TVA2022.4.002.LE
2022-12-01
2023-02-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Abendroth, A.-K. (2021). The gender pay gap in the platform economy: Comparing the importance of market and organisational dynamics on two German crowdworking platforms. Gender a Výzkum / Gender and Research, 21(2), 59-84. https://doi.org/10.13060/gav.2020.011
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Acquier, A., Daudigeos, T., & Pinkse, J. (2017). Promises and paradoxes of the sharing economy: An organizing framework. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 125(July), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2017.07.006
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Aloisi, A., & De Stefano, V. (2020). Regulation and the future of work: The employment relationship as an innovation facilitator. International Labour Review, 159(1), 47-69. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3572584
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Altenried, M. (2020). The platform as factory: Crowdwork and the hidden labour behind artificial intelligence. Capital & Class, 44(2), 145-158. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309816819899410
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Ameri, M., Rogers, S. E., Schur, L., & Kruse, D. (2020). No room at the inn? Disability access in the new sharing economy. Academy of Management Discoveries, 6(2), 176-205. https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2018.0054
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Biber, E., Light, S. E., Ruhl, J. B., & Salzman, J. (2019). Regulating business innovation as policy disruption: From the Model T to Airbnb. Vanderbilt Law Review, 70(5), 1561-1626. https://scholarship.law.vanderbilt.edu/vlr/vol70/iss5/4
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Boot, G. (2022). Platform work in Europe: The need for a multilevel solution to protect the so-called self-employed. European Labour Law Journal, 13(1), 81-85. https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525211063113
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cantero Gamito, M. (2017). Regulation.com: self-regulation and contract governance in the platform economy: a research agenda. European Journal of Legal Studies, 9(2), 53-68. http://hdl.handle.net/1814/46068
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Caplan, R., & Gillespie, T. (2020). Tiered governance and demonetization: The shifting terms of labor and compensation in the platform economy. Social Media + Society, 6(2), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305120936636
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2019). The Netherlands on the European scale 2019. https://longreads.cbs.nl/european-scale-2019/
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (2020). Dynamiek op de Nederlandse Arbeidsmarkt (5e ed.). https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/publicatie/2020/06/dynamiek-op-denederlandse-arbeidsmarkt-de-focus-op-zekerheid
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Close, S., & Wang, C. (2020). International platforms, international prejudice in the platformization of crafting. Social Media + Society, 6(3), 205630512094069. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305120940691
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cong, L. W., Li, Y., & Wang, N. (2022). Token-based platform finance. Journal of Financial Economics, 144(3), 972-991. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JFINECO.2021.10.002
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Davidson, N. M., & Infranca, J. J. (2016). The sharing economy as an urban phenomenon. Yale Law & Policy Review, 34(2), 215-279. https://www.jstor.org/stable/43920368
    [Google Scholar]
  15. De Stefano, V. (2016). The rise of the “just-in-time workforce”: On-demand work, crowdwork and labour protection in the “gig-economy” (Condition of Work and Employment Series No. 71). International Labour Office. https://www.ilo.org/travail/whatwedo/publications/WCMS_443267/lang--es/index.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Dockès, E. (2019). New trade union strategies for new forms of employment. European Labour Law Journal, 10(3), 219-228. https://doi.org/10.1177/2031952519870061
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Dubal, V. B. (2022). Economic security & the regulation of gig work in California: From AB5 to Proposition 22. European Labour Law Journal, 13(1), 51-65. https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525211063111
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Eichenhofer, E. (2021). Platform work and social security in German law: An international law perspective. International Social Security Review, 74(3-4), 111-132. https://doi.org/10.1111/ISSR.12280
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Erlich, M. (2020). Misclassification in construction: The original gig economy. ILR Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/0019793920972321
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Fan, L. (2021). The forming of e-platform-driven flexible specialisation: How e-commerce platforms have changed China’s garment industry supply chains and labour relations. China Perspectives, 2021(1), 29-37. https://doi.org/10.4000/chinaperspectives.11349
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Finkin, M. W. (2016). Beclouded work in historical perspective. Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal, 37(3), 1-20. http://ssrn.com/abstract=2712722
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Frenken, K., & Schor, J. B. (2017). Putting the sharing economy into perspective. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 23, 3-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2017.01.003
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Fuster Morell, M. (2022). The gender of the platform economy. Internet Policy Review, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.14763/2022.1.1620
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Garben, S. (2019). The regulatory challenge of occupational safety and health in the online platform economy. International Social Security Review, 72(3), 95-112. https://doi.org/10.1111/ISSR.12215
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Gig Economy Data Hub. (n.d.). What is a gig worker? [Webpage]. Retrieved March13, 2022, from https://www.gigeconomydata.org/basics/what-gig-worker
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Gramano, E. (2021). On the notion of ‘worker’ under EU law: new insights. European Labour Law Journal, 12(1), 98-101. https://doi.org/10.1177/2031952521998812
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Grossman, N., & Woyke, E. (2015). Serving workers in the gig economy. O’Reilly Media, Inc. https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/serving-workers-in/9781492049920/
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Guan, Z. (2021). Chinese beauty bloggers: amateurs, entrepreneurs, and platform labour. Celebrity Studies, 12(2), 326-332. https://doi.org/10.1080/19392397.2020.1737154
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Guerrero, M. L. P., & Royo, M. R. P. (2021). Social security for Spain’s platform workers: Self-employed or employee status?International Social Security Review, 74(3-4), 177-194. https://doi.org/10.1111/ISSR.12283
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Hagel, J., III & Singer, M. (1999). Unbundling the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 77(2), 133-141.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Hassan, Y. (2020). The politics of sharing: Sociotechnical imaginaries of digital platforms. Information Polity, 25(2), 159-176. https://doi.org/10.3233/IP-190203
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Helmond, A. (2015). The platformization of the web: Making web data platform ready. Social Media + Society, 1(2), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305115603080
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Hirsch, P. M., & Levin, D. Z. (1999). Umbrella advocates versus validity police: A life-cycle model. Organization Science, 10(2), 199-212. https://doi.org/10.1287/orsc.10.2.199
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Hoang, L., Blank, G., & Quan-Haase, A. (2020). The winners and the losers of the platform economy: who participates?Information Communication and Society, 23(5), 681-700. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2020.1720771
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Huizinga, J. (1940). Homo ludens: Proeve eener bepaling van het spel-element der cultuur (2nd ed.). H. D.Tjeenk Willink & ZoonN.V.https://www.dbnl.org/arch/huiz003homo02_01/pag/huiz003homo02_01.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  36. International Labour Organization. (2016). Non-standard employment around the world. Understanding challenges, shaping prospects. ILO Publications. http://ilo.org/global/publications/books/WCMS_534326/lang--en/index.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  37. International Labour Organization. (2021). World employment and social outlook: The role of digital labour platforms in transforming the world of work (ILO Flagship Report). https://www.ilo.org/global/research/global-reports/weso/2021/WCMS_771749/lang--en/index.htm
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Jacqueson, C. (2021). Platform work, social protection and flexicurity in Denmark. International Social Security Review, 74(3-4), 39-59. https://doi.org/10.1111/ISSR.12277
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Johnston, H. (2020). Labour geographies of the platform economy: Understanding collective organizing strategies in the context of digitally mediated work. International Labour Review, 159(1), 25-45. https://doi.org/10.1111/ILR.12154
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kenney, M., & Zysman, J. (2016). The rise of the platform economy. Issues in Science and Technology, 32(3), 61-69.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Kloostra, J. (2022). Algorithmic pricing: A concern for platform workers?European Labour Law Journal, 13(1), 108-126. https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525211060360
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Kluzik, V. (2022). Governing invisibility in the platform economy: excavating the logics of platform care. Internet Policy Review, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.14763/2022.1.1636
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Koutsimpogiorgos, N., van Slageren, J., Herrmann, A. M., & Frenken, K. (2020). Conceptualizing the gig economy and its regulatory problems. Policy and Internet, 12(4), 525-545. https://doi.org/10.1002/poi3.237
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Kuhn, K. M., & Maleki, A. (2017). Micro-entrepreneurs, dependent contractors, and instaserfs: Understanding online labor platform workforces. Academy of Management Perspectives, 31(3), 183-200. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2015.0111
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Kullmann, M. (2022). ‘Platformisation’ of work: An EU perspective on introducing a legal presumption. European Labour Law Journal, 13(1), 66-80. https://doi.org/10.1177/20319525211063112
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Leonardi, E., & Pirina, G. (2020). Uber in the Portuguese gig economy: a laboratory for platform capitalism. Work Organisation, Labour & Globalisation, 14(2), 46-63. https://doi.org/10.13169/WORKORGALABOGLOB.14.2.0046
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Lhernould, J.-P. (2020). Intra-EU cross-border platform work: hiding issues of undeclared work. Zbornik Pravnog Fakulteta u Zagrebu, 70(4), 455-479. https://doi.org/10.3935/zpfz.70.4.01
    [Google Scholar]
  48. MacDonald, R., & Giazitzoglu, A. (2019). Youth, enterprise and precarity: or, what is, and what is wrong with, the ‘gig economy’?Journal of Sociology, 55(4), 724-740. https://doi.org/10.1177/1440783319837604
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Mäntymäki, M., Baiyere, A., & Islam, A. K. M. N. (2019). Digital platforms and the changing nature of physical work: Insights from ride-hailing. International Journal of Information Management, 49, 452-460. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.IJINFOMGT.2019.08.007
    [Google Scholar]
  50. McGovern, M. (2017). Thriving in the gig economy. Career Press. https://learning.oreilly.com/library/view/thriving-in-the/9781632650955/
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Ministerie van Financiën. (2020). Het belasten van inkomsten behaald uit de deel- en kluseconomie: Bouwstenen voor een beter belastingstelsel. https://www.rijksoverheid.nl/documenten/kamerstukken/2020/05/18/het-belasten-van-inkomstenbehaald-uit-de-deel-en-kluseconomie
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Myhill, K., Richards, J., & Sang, K. (2021). Job quality, fair work and gig work: the lived experience of gig workers. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 32(19), 4110-4135. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2020.1867612
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Nerinckx, S. (2016). The ‘Uberization’ of the labour market: some thoughts from an employment law perspective on the collaborative economy. ERA Forum, 17(2), 245-265. https://doi.org/10.1007/S12027-016-0439-Y
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Newlands, G., Lutz, C., & Fieseler, C. (2018). Collective action and provider classification in the sharing economy. New Technology, Work and Employment, 33(3), 250-267. https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12119
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Nilsen, M., Kongsvik, T., & Almklov, P. G. (2022). Splintered structures and workers without a workplace: How should safety science address the fragmentation of organizations?Safety Science, 148, 105644. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.SSCI.2021.105644
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Pawłowska, A. (2020). Employability market orientation of employee on the gig economy labour market. Problemy Zarządzania – Management Issues, 17(6(86)), 58-73. https://doi.org/10.7172/1644-9584.86.3
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Pelzer, P., Frenken, K., & Boon, W. (2019). Institutional entrepreneurship in the platform economy: How Uber tried (and failed) to change the Dutch taxi law. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 33, 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.EIST.2019.02.003
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Pesole, A., Urzí Brancati, M. C., Fernández-Macías, E., Biagi, F., & González Vázquez, I. (2018). Platform workers in Europe evidence from the COLLEEM survey. https://doi.org/10.2760/742789
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Peters, M. D. J., Godfrey, C. M., Khalil, H., McInerney, P., Parker, D., & Soares, C. B. (2015). Guidance for conducting systematic scoping reviews. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare, 13(3), 141-146. https://doi.org/10.1097/XEB.0000000000000050
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Poell, T., Nieborg, D., & van Dijck, J. (2019). Platformisation. Internet Policy Review, 8(4). https://doi.org/10.14763/2019.4.1425
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Pompurová, K., Sebova, Ľ., & Scholz, P. (2022). Reimagining the tour operator industry in the post-pandemic period: Is the platform economy a cure or a poison?Cogent Business & Management, 9(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2022.2034400
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Prassl, J. (2018). Humans as a service: The promise and perils of work in the gig economy. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198797012.003.0001
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Quarta, A. (2020). Narratives of the digital economy: How platforms are challenging consumer law and hierarchical organization. Global Jurist, 20(2). https://doi.org/10.1515/GJ-2020-0026/
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Rani, U., & Dhir, R. K. (2020). Platform work and the COVID-19 pandemic. Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 63(1), 163-171. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41027-02000273-y
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Reid-Musson, E., MacEachen, E., & Bartel, E. (2020). ‘Don’t take a poo!’’: Worker misbehaviour in on-demand ride-hail carpooling.’New Technology, Work and Employment, 35(2), 145-161. https://doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.12159
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Rochet, J. C., & Tirole, J. (2006). Two-sided markets: a progress report. The RAND Journal of Economics, 37(3), 645-667. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1756-2171.2006.TB00036.X
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Rosenbaum, F. C. (2021). Two notions to delimit the nature of work on digital platforms: Autonomy and alienness. E-Journal of International and Comparative Labour Studies, 10(2), 92-129. www.adaptbulletin.eu
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Rosin, A. (2021). Platform work and fixed-term employment regulation. European Labour Law Journal, 12(2), 156-176. https://doi.org/10.1177/2031952520959335
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Schor, J. B. (2017). Does the sharing economy increase inequality within the eighty percent?: findings from a qualitative study of platform providers. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 10(2), 263-279. https://doi.org/10.1093/CJRES/RSW047
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Schoukens, P., Barrio, A., & Montebovi, S. (2018). The EU social pillar: An answer to the challenge of the social protection of platform workers?European Journal of Social Security, 20(3), 219-241. https://doi.org/10.1177/1388262718798393
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Schwellnus, C., Geva, A., Pak, M., & Veiel, R. (2019). Gig economy platforms: Boon or bane? (No. 1550; Working Papers). www.oecd.org/eco/workingpapers.
    [Google Scholar]
  72. SEO Economisch Onderzoek. (2018). De opkomst en groei van de kluseconomie in Nederland [The rise and growth of the gig economy in the Netherlands]. http://www.seo.nl/uploads/media/2018-30_De_opkomst_en_groei_van_de_kluseconomie_in_Nederland.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Sociaal-Economische Raad. (2020). Hoe werkt de platformeconomie? (No. 9). https://www.ser.nl/nl/Publicaties/hoe-werkt-platformeconomie
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Srnicek, N. (2017). Platform capitalism. Polity Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  75. Stanford, J. (2017). The resurgence of gig work: Historical and theoretical perspectives. Economic and Labour Relations Review, 28(3), 382-401. https://doi.org/10.1177/1035304617724303
    [Google Scholar]
  76. Stewart, A., & Stanford, J. (2017). Regulating work in the gig economy: What are the options?Economic and Labour Relations Review, 28(3), 420-437. https://doi.org/10.1177/1035304617722461
    [Google Scholar]
  77. Strowel, A., & Vergote, W. (2016). Digital platforms: to regulate or not to regulate? Message to regulators: fix the economics first, then focus on the right regulation. https://ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/image/document/2016-7/uclouvain_et_universit_saint_louis_14044.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  78. Suh, J., Auberson, L., & Ede, S. (2022). Connected backyard gardening as a platform for suburban community building in Adelaide, Australia. Community Development, 53(1), 21-38. https://doi.org/10.1080/15575330.2021.1936103
    [Google Scholar]
  79. Tang, L. (2021). Burning out in emotional capitalism: Appropriation of ganqing and renqing in the Chinese platform economy. Journal of Sociology, 144078332110445. https://doi.org/10.1177/14407833211044568
    [Google Scholar]
  80. Ter Weel, B., van Kesteren, J., & Van der Werff, S. (2020). Notitie: Meting kluseconomie. https://www.ser.nl/nl/Publicaties/hoe-werkt-platformeconomie
    [Google Scholar]
  81. Thorhauge, A. M. (2022). The Steam platform economy: From retail to player-driven economies. New Media & Society, 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448221081401
    [Google Scholar]
  82. Torp, S., & Reiersen, J. (2020). Globalization, work, and health: a Nordic perspective. International Journal of Environmental Research, 17(7661), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207661
    [Google Scholar]
  83. Tricco, A. C., Lillie, E., Zarin, W., O’Brien, K. K., Colquhoun, H., Levac, D., Moher, D., Peters, M. D. J., Horsley, T., Weeks, L., Hempel, S., Akl, E. A., Chang, C., McGowan, J., Stewart, L., Hartling, L., Aldcroft, A., Wilson, M. G., Garritty, C., … Straus, S. E. (2018). PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): Checklist and explanation. Annals of Internal Medicine, 169(7), 467-473. https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-0850
    [Google Scholar]
  84. Umar, M., Xu, Y., & Mirza, S. S. (2021). The impact of Covid-19 on gig economy. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 34(1), 2284-2296. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2020.1862688
    [Google Scholar]
  85. Vallas, S., & Schor, J. B. (2020). What do platforms do? Understanding the gig economy. Annual Review of Sociology, 46, 273-294. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-soc-121919-054857
    [Google Scholar]
  86. Van Doorn, N. (2017). Platform labor: on the gendered and racialized exploitation of low-income service work in the ‘on-demand’ economy. Information Communication and Society, 20(6), 898-914. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2017.1294194
    [Google Scholar]
  87. Van Doorn, N. (2020). At what price? Labour politics and calculative power struggles in on-demand food delivery. Work Organisation, Labour & Globalisation, 14(1), 136-149. https://doi.org/10.13169/WORKORGALABOGLOB.14.1.0136
    [Google Scholar]
  88. Vyas, N. (2021). ‘Gender inequality-now available on digital platform’: an interplay between gender equality and the gig economy in the European Union. European Labour Law Journal, 12(1), 37-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/2031952520953856
    [Google Scholar]
  89. Wang, S. (2020). Chinese affective platform economies: dating, live streaming, and performative labor on Blued. Media, Culture, and Society, 42(4), 502-520. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443719867283
    [Google Scholar]
  90. Watson, G. P., Kistler, L. D., Graham, B. A., & Sinclair, R. R. (2021). Looking at the gig picture: Defining gig work and explaining profile differences in gig workers’ job demands and resources. Group & Organization Management, 46(2), 327-361. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601121996548
    [Google Scholar]
  91. Webster, N. A., & Zhang, Q. (2020). Careers delivered from the kitchen? Immigrant women small-scale entrepreneurs working in the growing Nordic platform economy. NORA – Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, 28(2), 113-125. https://doi.org/10.1080/08038740.2020.1714725
    [Google Scholar]
  92. Wells, K. J., Attoh, K., & Cullen, D. (2021). “Just-in-Place” labor: Driver organizing in the Uber workplace. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 53(2), 315-331. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X20949266
    [Google Scholar]
  93. Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid. (2020). Het betere werk: De nieuwe maatschappelijke opdracht (G.Engbersen, M.Kremer, R.Went, & A.Boot, Reds.). https://www.wrr.nl/adviesprojecten/toekomst-van-werk/documenten/rapporten/2020/01/15/het-betere-werk
    [Google Scholar]
  94. Woodcock, J., & Graham, M. (2021). The gig economy: A critical introduction. Polity Press
    [Google Scholar]
  95. Woods, H. S. (2018). Asking more of Siri and Alexa: feminine persona in service of surveillance capitalism. Critical Studies in Media Communication, 35(4), 334-349. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295036.2018.1488082
    [Google Scholar]
  96. You, C. (2022). Half a loaf is better than none: The new data protection regime for China’s platform economy. Computer Law & Security Review, 45, 105668. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.CLSR.2022.105668
    [Google Scholar]
  97. Yu, S., Gong, X., & Wu, N. (2020). Job insecurity and employee engagement: A moderated dual path model. Sustainability, 12(23), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122310081
    [Google Scholar]
  98. Zekić, N. (2019). Contradictory court rulings on the status of Deliveroo workers in the Netherlands. Comparative Labor Law & Policy Journal Dispatch No. 17, 17, 1-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  99. Zwick, A. (2018). Welcome to the gig economy: neoliberal industrial relations and the case of Uber. GeoJournal, 83(4), 679-691. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10708-017-9793-8
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/TVA2022.4.002.LE
Loading
/content/journals/10.5117/TVA2022.4.002.LE
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error