‘Manhafte heren en medebroederen’ | Amsterdam University Press Journals Online
Volume 136, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0040-7518
  • E-ISSN: 2352-1163



In the early 1780s citizens began to organize themselves in patriotic societies that were meant to change the existing political constellation. They organized themselves locally in order to form a national patriotic organization, with an ideological and a military section. This political and social movement drew people from all walks of life and from all religious groups. Traditionally, group formation took place along lines of profession, socio-economic background and religion, but now group formation took place around political-ideological positions. This meant that people from all social strata and different cultural backgrounds were active in this movement, so the movement required a new way of forging these groups into unity. Physical rituals were rigged with patriotic rhetoric, making the rituals function as an emotional practice that strengthened mutual bonds and devotion to the patriotic cause. Partly because of these practices, this movement was very successful.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error