2004
Volume 27, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 1384-5845
  • E-ISSN: 2352-1171

Abstract

Abstract

Adverbs of degree are prone to undergo change, and new adverbs frequently emerge through grammaticalisation. These adverbs tend to adhere to various syntactic and semantic restrictions that govern their usage depending on their degree of grammaticalisation (Klein 1998). During the grammaticalisation process, they first tend to expand in function and then become more specialised (Bolinger 1972, Klein 1998). This article provides documentation for the usage of the different adverbs of degree in Early Middle Dutch, and draws comparisons with Modern Dutch in order to shed light on the changes that led to the present situation. Using data from the (2013), the present study focuses on eight adverbs. These include adverbs of high degree (), low degree (), a negative polarity item () and a modifier of comparatives. Some of these are still around in Modern Dutch, but with differences in distribution () or in register (), while others have disappeared (). We present evidence that distributional patterns may be preserved even when the adverbs themselves are replaced by other expressions. We also found that the high degree adverbs show greater distinctions than those of low degree.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/NEDTAA2022.2.006.VISS
2022-10-01
2022-12-07
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Arppe, Antti (2013). Polytomous logistic regression for fixed and mixed effects. R package version 0.1.6. <https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=polytomous>
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Auwera, Johan van der (2009). The Jespersen Cycles. In: E.Van Gelderen (ed.), Cyclical change. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 35-72.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bloemhoff, Albertha Anna (2014). Zeventiende-eeuwse graadadverbia: Een studie naar de gekaapte brieven. University of Groningen: MA Thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Bolinger, Dwight (1972). Degree words. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bree, Cor van (1996). Historische taalkunde (2nd edn.). Leuven & Amersfoort: Acco.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Buuren, Maaike ten, Mariavan de Groep, SebasianCollin, JetskeKlatter & Helende Hoop (2018). Facking nice! Een onderzoek naar de intensiteit van intensiveerders. Nederlandse taalkunde23, 223-25.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Church, Kenneth Ward & PatrickHanks (1990). Word association norms, mutual information, and lexicography. Computational linguistics16, 22-29.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Corpus Hedendaags Nederlands (2013). <https://portal.clarin.inl.nl/search/page/search>
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Donhauser, Karin, JostGippert & RosemarieLühr (2018). Deutsch Diachron Digital – Referenzkorpus Altdeutsch (Version 1.1). <http://www.deutschdiachrondigital.de/>
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Fulk, Robert D. (2018). A comparative grammar of the Early Germanic languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Gysseling, Maurits (2013). Corpus Gysseling. <http://gysseling.corpus.taalbanknederlands.inl.nl/gysseling/page/search>
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Harrell, Frank E. Jr. (2018). Regression modeling strategies. R package version 5.1-2. <https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=rms>
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Hoeksema, Jack (2005). Rijkdom en weelde van het Nederlands. TABU34, 1-11.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Hoeksema, Jack (2009). Jespersen recycled. In: E.Van Gelderen (ed.), Cyclical change. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 15-34.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Hoeksema, Jack (2011a). Bepalingen van graad in eerstetaalverwerving. TABU39, 3-22.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Hoeksema, Jack (2011b). Discourse scalarity: The case of Dutch helemaal. Journal of pragmatics43, 2810-2825.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Hoeksema, Jack & JanKorterink (2011). Keus van bijwoorden van hoge graad: Een vergelijking van studenten met vmbo-leerlingen. TABU39, 23-37.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hopper, Paul J. & Elizabeth ClossTraugott (2003). Grammaticalization (2nd edn.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Horst, Joop van der (2008a). Geschiedenis van de Nederlandse syntaxis (vol. 1). Leuven: Universitaire pers Leuven.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Horst, Joop van der (2008b). Het einde van de standaardtaal. Amsterdam: J.M. Meulenhoff.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Houston, Ann (1985). Continuity and change in English morphology: The variable (ING). University of Pennsylvania: PhD thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ito, Rika & SaliTagliamonte (2003). Well weird, right dodgy, very strange, really cool: Layering and recycling in English intensifiers. Language in society32, 257-279.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Jespersen, Otto (1917). Negation in English and other languages. Kobenhavn: Host.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Kennedy, Christopher & LouiseMcNally (2005). Scale structure, degree modification, and the semantics of gradable predicates. Language81, 345-381.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Klein, Henny (1998). Adverbs of degree in Dutch and related languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Koefoed, Geert (1978). Taalverandering in het licht van taalverwerving en taalgebruik. In: G.Koefoed & J.Van Marle (eds.), Aspecten van taalverandering, een verzameling van inleidende artikelen. Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff, 11-70.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Labov, William A. (1989). The child as linguistic historian. Language variation and change1, 85-97.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Levshina, Natalia (2015). How to do linguistics with R: Data exploration and statistical analysis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Loey, Adolphe van (1970). Schönfelds historische grammatica van het Nederlands (8th edn.). Zutphen: N.V.W.T. Thieme & Cie.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Lorenz, Gunter (2002). Really worthwhile or not really significant?: A corpus-based approach to the delexicalization of intensifiers in Modern English. In: I.Wischer & G.Diewald (eds.), New reflections on grammaticalization. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 143-161.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Marynissen, Ann & GuyJanssens (2012). A regional history of Dutch. In: F.Hinskens & J.Taeldeman (eds.), Language and space: An international handbook of linguistic variation ( vol. 3). Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 81-100.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Méndez-Naya, Belén (2003). On intensifiers and grammaticalisation: The case of swīþe. English studies84, 372-391.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Mooijaart, Marijke & Petervan der Heijden (1992). Linguïstische en geografische afstand in dertiende-eeuws Middelnederlands. Taal en tongval46, 188-216.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Odijk, Jan, Gertjanvan Noord, PeterKleiweg & Erik Tjong KimSang (2017). The Parse and Query (PaQu) Application. In: J.Odijk & A.Van Hessen (eds.), Clarin in the Low Countries. London: Ubiquity Press, 281-297.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Oostdijk, Nelleke (2000). Het Corpus Gesproken Nederlands. Nederlandse taalkunde5, 280-285.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Os, Charles van (1988). Intensivierung im Deutschen. University of Groningen: PhD thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Paradis, Carita (2001). Adjectives and boundedness. Cognitive linguistics12, 47-65.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Peters, Hans (1994). Degree adverbs in Early Modern English. In: D.Kastovsky (ed.), Studies in Early Modern English. Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, 269-288.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Philippa, Marlies, FransDebrabandere, ArendQuak, TannekeSchoonheim & Nicolinevan der Sijs (2009). Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. R Core Team (2017). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, Austria. <http://www.R-project.org/>
  41. Stoett, Frederik August (1977). Middelnederlandsche spraakkunst: Syntaxis (3rd edn.). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Stoffel, Cornelis (1901). Intensives and down-toners: A study in English adverbs. Heidelberg: Carl Winter’s Universitätsbuchhandlung.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Tribushinina, Elena & TheoJanssen (2011). Re-conceptualizing scale boundaries: The case of Dutch helemaal. Journal of pragmatics43, 2043-2056.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Vaan, Michiel de (2017). The dawn of Dutch: Language contact in the Western Low Countries before 1200. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Visser, Lourens (2019). The Adverb of Degree in Old and Early Middle Dutch. University of Groningen: MA Thesis.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek (VMNW) (2015). <http://gtb.inl.nl>
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal (WNT) (2015). <http://gtb.inl.nl>
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Wouden, Ton van der (1997). Negative contexts: Collocation, polarity and multiple negation. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Zwarts, Frans (1998). Three types of polarity. In: F.Hamm & E.Hinrichs (eds.), Plurality and quantification. Dordrecht: Springer, 177-238.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/NEDTAA2022.2.006.VISS
Loading
/content/journals/10.5117/NEDTAA2022.2.006.VISS
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error