Kijk, ik spreek illegaals! | Amsterdam University Press Journals Online
Volume 52, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 1876-9071
  • E-ISSN: 2214-5729



Despite the fact that linguistic contact phenomena have been observed in various cities across the Netherlands and Flanders, it may be imprudent to label these phenomena with names such as , and recently . We argue that these labels, in particular , so far have functioned as floating signifiers that are variably attributed to a wide range of different linguistic targets such as imitations of accented Dutch, learner Dutch or even competent fluent Dutch. We suggest that these signifiers do not so much hint at the existence of new separate urban varieties of language, but rather offer clues for how speakers navigate linguistic complexity and difference in contemporary cities, and what language use may come to be seen as normal, attractive and worth pursuing in the future.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): contextualization; foreigner talk; Illegal; labelling; Murks; street language
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