Volume 36, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 1567-7109
  • E-ISSN: 2468-1652



To explore the relation between academic confidence and ability, an arithmetic and a spelling test were administered to 166 students in grades 4 and 5. For each item, students indicated whether they were confident about their answer. The agreement (‘calibration’) between confidence and test performance is limited. Overestimation of performance exceeds underestimation. Confidence is not a general characteristic of a student, but is dependent upon school domain and ability in that domain. Overestimation of arithmetic performance hardly differs between grades, but overestimation of spelling turns into underestimation. Apparently, the increase in ability leads to an increase in confidence in case of arithmetic, but turns into ‘suspicion’ in the spelling domain. Boys are more confident than girls, even if the answer is wrong. Girls excel in the identification of wrong answers.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): arithmetic; calibration; competence; confidence; self-assessment; spelling
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error