De rol van nationaal beleid, schoolbeleid en leraren in de implementatie van 21e eeuwse vaardigheden | Amsterdam University Press Journals Online
Volume 38, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 1567-7109
  • E-ISSN: 2468-1652



Despite the emphasis on 21st century skills in empirical studies and Dutch policy recommendations, it has been shown that these skills are not systematically implemented in primary and secondary schools in the Netherlands. To understand the gap between policy and practice, concerns in both fields need to be considered. However, research has taken little notice of teachers’ conceptualizations and motivations with regards to 21st century skills and their perspectives towards national policy, school policies and their daily practice. This study aimed to identify factors on the micro- meso- and macro level that may, according to teachers, play a role in the implementation of 21st century skills. Nine teachers in primary and secondary education with experience with the implementation of 21st century skills were interviewed. Qualitative analyses were adopted to examine the prevalence of existing and new ideas about influential factors. Results indicated that the rationale for and conceptualization of 21st century skills partly explained the educational innovation. Factors in national policy, including clear guidelines, adjusted regulations and larger budgets for school resources, could support school policies. In turn, school policy factors like curricula, assessments, professionalization programs, infrastructure and leadership could help to prepare teachers to achieve the relevant knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy and collaboration practices. Hence, the synergy between factors on the national- school- and teacher-level seemed crucial for the implementation of 21st century skills.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): 21st century skills; educational innovation; ICT; policy; school organization
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