2004
Volume 38, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 1567-7109
  • E-ISSN: 2468-1652

Abstract

Abstract

Until 2004, Dutch women seeking donor insemination through medical facilities could opt for open-identity or anonymous donors. Currently, Dutch medical facilities are only allowed to use sperm from open-identity donors. Focusing on adolescents who were born before 2004, the present study provides a unique opportunity to compare the well-being of those conceived through different donor types: known, open-identity, or anonymous. The present study is based on 67 Dutch adolescents (mean=16.04) conceived through sperm donation in lesbian-mother families. Participating adolescents were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Youth Self-Report, and to answer questions about their donor. Thirty-three adolescents were conceived through known, 22 through open-identity, and 12 through anonymous donors. No significant differences were found on self-esteem or problem behavior among adolescents conceived through the three donor types. Likewise, no significant differences were found on these variables for adolescents with known donors who indicated that these men did or did not play important roles in their lives. Feeling uncomfortable about not knowing one’s donor was associated with lower levels of self-esteem and more externalizing problem behavior. That donor type has no bearing on adolescent self-esteem and problem behavior may help in guiding the donor choices of prospective lesbian parents.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/PED2018.2.004.RIJN
2018-12-01
2021-06-24
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/15677109/38/2/04_PED2018.2.RIJN.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5117/PED2018.2.004.RIJN&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Achenbach, T.M., & Rescorla, L.A.(2001). Manual for ASEBA School-Age Forms & Profiles. Burlington, VT, USA: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Agigian, A.(2004). Baby Steps: How Lesbian Alternative Insemination is Changing the World. Middletown, CT, USA: Wesleyan University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Almack, K.(2006). Seeking sperm: accounts of lesbian couples’ reproductive decision-making and understandings of the needs of the child. International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family, 20, 1-22.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. BaranA, & Pannor, R.(1993). Perspectives on open adoption. The Future of Children, 3, 119-124.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Barrett, S.E.(1997). Children of lesbian parents: The what, when, and how of talking about donor identity. Women & Therapy, 20, 43-55.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Beeson, D.R., JenningsP.K., & KramerW.(2011). Offspring searching for their sperm donors: How family type shapes the process. Human Repruction, 26, 2415-2424.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blascovich, J. & Tomaka, J.(1991). Measures of Self-esteem. In J.P.Robinson, P.R.Shaver, & L.S.Wrightsman (Eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Bos, H.M.W.(2004). Parenting in planned lesbian families. Amsterdam: Vossius.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bos, H.M.W., & Gartrell, H.M.W.(2010). Adolescents of the U.S. national longitudinal lesbian family study: The impact of having a known or an unknown donor on the stability of psychological adjustment. Human reproduction, 26, 630-637.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Chabot, J.M., & Ames, B.D.(2004). “It wasn’t ‘let’s get pregnant and go do it’”: Decision- making in lesbian couples planning motherhood via donor insemination. Family Relations, 53, 348-356.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Crabb, S., & Augoustinos, M.(2008). Genes and families in the media: Implications of genetic discourse for constructions of the ‘family’. Health Sociology Review, 17(3), 303-312.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. De Groot, A.(1996). Cross-cultural generalizability of the youth self-report and teacher’s report form cross-informant syndromes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24(5), 651-664.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dubois, D.L., & Tevendale, H.D.(1999). Self-esteem in childhood and adolescence: Vaccine or epiphenomenon?Applied and Preventive Psychology, 8, 103-117.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Efron, B., & Tibshiriani, R.J.(1993). An Introduction to the Bootstrap. New York, NY, USA: Chapman & Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Erikson, E.H.(1968). Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York, NY, USA: Norton Company.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Freeman, T., & Golombok, S.(2012). Donor insemination: a follow-up study of disclosure decisions, family relationships and child adjustment at adolescence. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 25, 193-203.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gartrell, N., & Bos, H.M.W.(2010). The US National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study: Psychological adjustment of the 17-year-old adolescents. Pediatrics, 126(1), 1-9.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Gartrell, N., Bos, H.M.W., Goldberg, N.G., Deck, A., & Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L.(2014). Satisfaction with known, open-identity, or unknown sperm donors: Reports from lesbian mothers of 17-year-old adolescents. Fertility & Sterility, 103, 242-248.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gartrell, N., Peyser, H., & Bos, H.M.W.(2011). Planned lesbian families: A review of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study. In D.M.Brodizinsky, A.Pertman, D.B.Kunz (Eds.), Lesbian and Gay Adoption. A New American Reality. Oxford, US: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Gliner, J.A., Morgan, G.A., & Leech, N.L.(2011). Research in methods in applied settings: An integrated approach to design and analysis. Londen/New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Goldberg, A.E.(2010). Lesbian and gay parents and their children. Research on the family life cycle. Washington DC, USA: American Psychological Association.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Goldberg, A.E., & Allen, K.R.(2007). Imagining men: Lesbian mothers’ perceptions and intentions about male involvement across the transition to parenthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 352-365.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Goldberg, A.E., & Allen, K.R.(2013). Donor, dad, or…? Young adults with lesbian parents’ experiences with known donors. Family Process, 52, 338-350.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Golombok, S.(2015). Modern families. Parents and children in new family forms. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Grace, V.M., Daniels, K.R., & Gillett, W.(2008). The donor, the father, and the imaginary constitution of the family: Parents’ constructions in the case of donor insemination. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 301-314.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Greil, A.L., Slason-Blevins, K, & McQuillan, J.(2010). The experience of infertility: A review of recent literature. Sociology of Health & Illness, 32, 140-162.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Grotevant, H.D., Dunbar, N., Kohler, J.K., & Esau, A.M.L.(1993). Adoptive identity: How contexts within and beyond the family shape developmental pathways. Family Relations, 49, 379-387.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Harter, S.(1993). Self-esteem. New York, NY, USA: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Hertz, R.(2002). The father as an idea: A challenge to kinship boundaries by single mothers. Symbolic Interaction, 25, 1-31.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Ilioi, E.C., & Golombok, S.(2014). Psychological adjustment in adolescents conceived by assisted reproduction techniques: A systematic review. Human Reproduction Update, 21, 84-96.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Jadva, V., Freeman, T., Kramer, W., Golombok, S.(2009). The experiences of adolescents and adults conceived by sperm donation: Comparisons by age of disclosure and family type. Human Reproduction, 24, 1909-1919.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Jadva, V., Freeman, T., Kramer, W., & Golombok, S.(2010). Experiences of offspring searching for and contacting their donor siblings and donor. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 20, 523-532.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Landau, R.(1998). The management of genetic origins: secrecy and openness in donor assisted conception in Israel and elsewhere. Human Reproduction, 13(11), 3268-3273.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Jasinskaja-Lahti, I., & Liebkind, K.(2001). Perceived discrimination and psychological adjustment among Russian-speaking immigrant adolescents in Finland. International Journal of Psychology, 36, 174-185.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Kosterman, R., Hawkins, J.D., Mason, W.A., Herrenkohl, T.I., Lengua, L.J., & McCauley, E.(2010). Assessment of behavior problems in childhood and adolescence as predictors of early adult depression. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32,118-127.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Mann, M.M., Hosman, C.M., Schaalma, H.P., & De Vries, N.K.(2004). Self-esteem in a broad-spectrum approach for mental health promotion. Health Education Research, 19, 357-372.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. McNair, R., Dempsey, D., Perlesz, A., & Wise, S.(2002). Lesbian parenting: Issues, strengths and challenges. Family Matters, 63(Spring/Summer), 40-49.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Miall, C.E.(1986). The stigma of involuntary childlessness. Social Problems, 33, 268-282.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Miall, C.E.(1994). Community constructs of involuntary childlessness: sympathy, stigma, and social support. Canadian Review of Sociology, 31, 392-421.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lee, E.J., & Stone, S.I.(2012). Co-occurring internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems: The mediating effect of negative self-concept. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 717-731.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Luyckx, K., Schwartz, S.J., Goossens, L., Beyers, W., Missotten, L.(2011). Processes of Personal Identity Formation and Evaluation. In S.Schwartz, K.Luyckx, & V.L.Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of Identity Theory and Research. New York, NY, USA: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health
    Committee on Psychosocial Aspects of Child and Family Health(2013). Promoting the well-being of children whose parents are gay or lesbian. Pediatrics, 131, 827-830.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Ravelingien, A., & Pennings, G.(2013). The right to know your genetic parents: From open-identity gamete donation to routine paternity testing. The American Journal of Bioethics, 13, 33-41.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Readings, J., Blake, L., Casey, P., Jadva, V., & Golombok, S.(2011). Secrecy, disclosure and everything in-between: decisions of parents of children conceived by donor insemination, egg donation and surrogacy. Reproductive BioMedicine Online 2011,22, 485-495.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Rosenberg, M.(1979). Conceiving the Self. New York, NY, USA: Basic Books.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Rosenberg, M.(1989). Society and the Adolescent Self Image. Middletown, CT, USA: Wesleyan University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Rosenberg, M., Schooler, C., & Schoenbach, C.(1989). Self-esteem and adolescent problems: Modeling reciprocal effects. American Sociological Review, 54, 1004-1018.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Ryan-Flood, R.(2005). Contested heteronormativities: Discourses of fatherhood among lesbian parents in Sweden and Ireland. Sexualities, 8, 189-204.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Sälevaara, M., Suikkari, A.M., & Söderström-Anttila, V.(2013). Attitudes and disclosure decisions of Finnish parents with children conceived using donor sperm. Human Repoduction, 10, 2746-2754.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Scheib, J.E., Riordan, M., & Rubin, S.(2005). Adolescents with open-identity sperm donors: Reports from 12-17 year olds. Human Reproduction, 20, 239-252.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Touroni, E., & Coyle, A.(2002). Decision-making in planned lesbian parenting: An interpretative phenomenological analysis. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 12, 194-209.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Vanfraussen, K., Ponjaert-Kristofferson, I., & Brewaeys, A.(2003). Why do children want to know more about the donor? The experience of youngsters raised in lesbian families. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology, 24, 31-38.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Van Gelderen, L., Gartrell, N., Bos, H.M.W., Hermanns, J., & Perrin, E.The U.S. National Longitudinal Family Study: Quality of life of adolescents raised from birth by lesbian mothers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 33, 17-23.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Van Rijn-van Gelderen, L., Bos, H.M.W., & Gartrell, N.K.(2015). Dutch adolescents from lesbian-parent families: How do they compare to peers with heterosexual parents and what is the impact of homophobic stigmatization?Journal of Adolescence, 40, 65-73.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Wilcox, R.R.(2005). Introduction to Robust Estimation and Hypothesis Testing (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA, USA: Elsevier Academic Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Wilcox, R.R., & Keselman, H.J.(2003). Modern robust data analysis methods: Measures of central tendency. Psychological Methods, 8, 254-274.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Winter, H.B., Dondorp, W.J., Ploem, M.C., Woestenburg, N.O.M., Legemaate, J., De Wert, G.M.W.R.(2012). Evaluatie Embryowet en Wet Donorgegevens Kunstmatige Bevruchting [Evaluation of the law on embryos and information on artificial reproductive technologies]. The Hague, The Netherlands: ZONMW.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Zhang, G.(2015). A parametric bootstrap approach for one-way ANOVA under unequal variances with unbalanced data. Communications in Statistics – Stimulation and Computation, 44, 827-832.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/PED2018.2.004.RIJN
Loading
/content/journals/10.5117/PED2018.2.004.RIJN
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): adolescents; planned lesbian families; problem behavior; self-esteem; sperm donation
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error