Zittenblijven of afstromen? - De relatie tussen sociaal milieu en keuzes in het voortgezet onderwijs voor drie cohorten leerlingen | Amsterdam University Press Journals Online
Volume 84, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0025-9454
  • E-ISSN: 1876-2816


Grade retention or enrolling in a lower track? .

The relationship between social background and choices in secondary education for three cohorts of pupils .

Research on educational careers consistently has found a negative effect of social background on grade retention. In the present study, we make the argument that grade retention also can be seen as an attractive alternative for children in the higher tracks of secondary education when these turn out to be too demanding. Particularly highly educated parents might prefer grade retention above enrolling in a lower track. We test this hypothesis by estimating social background effects on the choice between grade retention and enrolling in a lower track. Our analysis is based on three cohorts of pupils who made the transition from primary to secondary education in 1989, 1993 and 1999 respectively. Indeed, when compared to a transition to a lower track, we find the expected positive effect of social background on grade retention. Surprisingly, the introduction of the unpopular pre-vocational secondary education (vmbo) in 1999 has not changed this effect.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
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