2004
Volume 97 Number 4
  • ISSN: 0025-9454
  • E-ISSN: 1876-2816

Abstract

Abstract

With the recent rise and fall of IS, academics and policy makers around the world are expressing concerns about the fate of children of former foreign fighters. Will they follow in their parents’ footsteps? In this paper, we argue that in light of this discussion, the intergenerational transmission of extreme beliefs deserves a research agenda of its own. The transmission of extreme ideologies, such as extremism and cultism, constitutes a unique topic, not previously captured in traditional transmission studies. The concepts commonly used in popular media, such as ‘brainwashing’ and ‘indoctrination’, similarly fall short when trying to understand this phenomenon. Instead, a multidisciplinary approach centered around the concept intergenerational transmission is proposed. We present some of our preliminary literature findings on this topic, and consider their relation to broader theoretical frameworks. We conclude with several considerations and suggestions for future research, to better understand the intergenerational transmission of extreme ideologies in all its complexity.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/MEM2022.4.005.WIER
2022-12-01
2023-02-04
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

  1. Amato, P. R. (1996). Explaining the intergenerational transmission of divorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family58(3), 628-640.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, Inc.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bavelas, J. B., & Segal, L. (1982). Family systems theory: Background and implications. Journal of communication, 32(3), 99-107.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Becker, H. S. (1963). Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. New York: Free Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Belsky, J. (2005). The developmental and evolutionary psychology of intergenerational transmission of attachment. In: Carter, S.C. (Ed.), Attachment and bonding: A new synthesis (p.169-198). Cambridge: MIT Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Bernardi, L. (2013). From mothers to daughters. Intergenerational transmission of fertility norms. In: Ellingsaeter, A.L., Jensen, A., & Lie, M. (Red.), The Social Meaning of Children and Fertility Change in Europe (p. 153-168). New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Blee, K. (2002). Inside organized racism. Berkeley: University Of California Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Borum, R. (2011). Radicalization into violent extremism II: A review of conceptual models and empirical research. Journal of strategic security, 4(4), 37-62.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bötticher, A. (2017). Towards Academic consensus definitions of radicalism and extremism. Perspectives on terrorism, 11(4), 73-77.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Bovenkerk, F. (2010). Uittreden: Over het verlaten van criminele organisaties. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Broderick, C. B. (1993). Understanding family process: Basics of family systems theory. London: Sage Publishers.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Butler, G. & Fazal, M. (27maart2021). ‘De zoon van Osama bin Laden is een schilder en Amerika is zijn muze’. Vice. Geraadpleegd via: https://www.vice.com/nl/article/jgq3gd/de-zoon-van-osama-bin-laden-is-een-schilder-en-amerika-is-zijn-muze
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., & Feldman, M. W. (1973). Cultural versus biological inheritance: phenotypic transmission from parents to children. (A theory of the effect of parental phenotypes on children’s phenotypes). American journal of human genetics, 25(6), 18-37.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Coates, D. D. (2016). Life inside a deviant “religious” group: Conformity and commitment as ensured through ‘brainwashing’ or as the result of normal processes of socialisation. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 44, 103-121.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Colvin, S. & Pisoiu, D. (2018). When being bad is good? Bringing neutralization theory to subcultural narratives of right-wing violence. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 43(6), 493-508.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Conger, R. D., Belsky, J., & Capaldi, D. M. (2009). The intergenerational transmission of parenting: Closing comments for the special section. Developmental psychology, 45(5), 1276-1283.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Copeland, S. (2020). Kin and peer contexts and militant involvement: A narrative analysis. Lancaster University.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Cornwall, M. (1989). The determinants of religious behavior: A theoretical model and empirical test. Social Forces, 68, 572-592.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dahms, H. F. (2020). Adorno’s Critique of the New Right-Wing Extremism: How (Not) to Face the Past, Present, and Future. Disclosure: A Journal of Social Theory, 29(1), 129-179.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Danley, C.J. (2004). Interpersonal factors which contributed to one’s ambivalence around leaving a cult. [Proefschrift]. Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Day, J., & Kleinmann, S. (2017). Combating the cult of ISIS: a social approach to countering violent extremism. The Review of Faith & International Affairs, 15(3), 14-23.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. De Baets, P., Janssen, J., van Wijk, A., & Braeckman, J. (2021). Sektarische bewegingen.Cahiers Politiestudies, 60(3). Antwerpen: Gompel & Svacina.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. De Graaf, B. A. (2018). Terrorisme-en radicaliseringsstudies: een explosief onderzoeksveld. Justitiële Verkenningen, 17(3), 8-30.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Detraux, J. (2007). Angst bij ex-sekteleden: neurologische en psychologische reflecties. Antenne, 21-27.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Dhar, D., Jain, T., & Jayachandran, S. (2019). Intergenerational transmission of gender attitudes: Evidence from India. The Journal of Development Studies, 55(12), 2572-2592.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Eelbode, F. (4maart2021). ‘België zet deur open voor terughalen IS-vrouwen’. De Tijd. Geraadpleegd via: https://www.tijd.be/politiek-economie/belgie/federaal/belgie-zet-deur-open-voor-terughalen-is-vrouwen/10288819.html
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Ehrensaft, M. K., Cohen, P., Brown, J., Smailes, E., Chen, H., & Johnson, J. G. (2003). Intergenerational transmission of partner violence: a 20-year prospective study. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 71(4), 741-753.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Erickson, J. A. (1992). Adolescent religious development and commitment: A structural equation model of the role of family, peer group, and educational influences. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 31, 131-152.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Fiese, B. H. (2006). Family routines and rituals. Yale University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Goodman, N. (1985). Socialization: I. A sociological overview. Studies in Symbolic Interaction, 1, 73–94.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Gurman, A. S., & Kniskern, D. P. (2014). Handbook of family therapy. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. HogeRaad (2020). Zaaknummer 19/05666 (ECLI:NL:HR:2020:1148). Geraadpleegd via: https://uitspraken.rechtspraak.nl/inziendocument?id=ECLI:NL:HR:2020:1148
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Horgan, J., Taylor, M., Bloom, M. & Winter, C. (2016). From Cubs to Lions: A Six Stage Model of Child Socialization into the Islamic State. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 40(7), p. 645-664.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Immler, N. L. (2012). ‘Too little, too late’? Compensation and family memory: Negotiating Austria’s Holocaust past. Memory Studies, 5(3), 270-281.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Jennings, M. K., Dalton, R. J., & Klingemann, H. D. (2007). The Oxford Handbook of Political Behavior. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Kok, J. F. W., & Van Oeffelt, P. W. H. M. (1982). Op weg naar een orthopedagogiek: Vraagstellingen om specifiek opvoeden, gerelationeerd aan relationele, cognitieve en conatieve belemmeringen in het opvoedings-ontwikkelingsproces. Pedagogisch Tijdschrift, 7, 290-294.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Lalich, J., & McLaren, K. (2017). Escaping Utopia: Growing Up in a Cult, Getting Outs, and Starting Over. New York: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Lamote, S. (21december2020). ‘‘Duitsland en Finland hebben begrepen dat Syriestrijders terughalen veiliger is’’. De Tijd. Geraadpleegd via: https://www.tijd.be/politiek-economie/internationaal/algemeen/duitsland-en-finland-hebbenbegrepen-dat-syriestrijders-terughalen-veiliger-is/10273378.html
    [Google Scholar]
  39. LaRossa, R., & Reitzes, D. C. (2009). Symbolic interactionism and family studies. In: Boss, P., Doherty, W.J., LaRossa, R.Schumm, W.R., Steinmetz, S.K. (Eds.). Sourcebook of family theories and methods (p. 135-166). Boston: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Lemert, E. (1967). Human Deviance, Social Problems and Social Control. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. McCauley, C., & Moskalenko, S. (2017). Understanding political radicalization: The two-pyramids model. American Psychologist, 72(3), 205-216.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Nijhof, K. S., Engels, R. C., Wientjes, J. A. M., & De Kemp, R. A. (2007). Crimineel gedrag van ouders en kinderen. Pedagogiek, 27(1), 29-44.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Nisbet, J. F. (1889). Transmission of physical and mental characteristics. In: Marriage and heredity: A view of psychological evolution (p. 88-104). London: Ward and Downey.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Pendleton, H. (1848). The Parents Guide for the Transmission of Desired Qualities to Offspring, and Childbirth Made Easy. New York: Fowlers and Wells.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Plourde, L.A. & Alawiye, O. (2003). Constructivism and elementary preservice science teacher preparation: Knowledge to application. College Student Journal, 37(3), 334–340.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Reinish, D. (2020). Teenagers and young adults in dissident Irish republicanism: a case study of Na Fianna Éireann in Dublin. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 13(4), 702-723.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Richardson, J. T. (1978). An oppositional and general conceptualization of cult. The Annual Review of the Social Sciences of Religion Utrecht, 2, 29-52.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Roest, A. (2007). Overdracht van waarden tussen ouders en pubers: Eenrichtingsverkeer?. In: Gerris, J.R.M. (Red.), Jeugdzorg en Probleemgedrag: Opvoedingswaarden en Vernieuwingen in Aanpak (p. 69-82). Assen: Van Gorcum BV.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1995). Understanding variability in lives through time: Contributions of life-course criminology. Studies on Crime & Crime Prevention, 4(2), 143–158.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Sandomir, R. (6juli2018). ‘Gudrun Burwitz, Ever-Loyal Daughter of Himmler, Is Dead at 88’. The New York Times. Geraadpleegd via: https://www.nytimes.com/2018/07/06/obituaries/gudrun-burwitz-ever-loyal-daughter-of-himmleris-dead-at-88.html
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Steutel, J., & de Ruyter, D. (2019). Wat is opvoeding?: Een conceptuele analyse1. Pedagogiek, 39(1), 53-77.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Stein, A. (2021). Terror, love and brainwashing: Attachment in cults and totalitarian systems. London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Sykes, G. M. & Matza, D. (1957). Techniques of neutralization: A theory of delinquency. American sociological review, 22(6), 664-670.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Van der Aa, E. (22januari20218). ‘Coalitie: Help kalifaatkinderen in de kampen zelf’. Algemeen Dagblad. Geraadpleegd via: https://www.ad.nl/binnenland/coalitie-help-kalifaatkinderen-in-de-kampen-zelf~a2b5dabd/
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Van San, M. (2019). Wanneer ouders een verkeerde keuze maken. Nederlands Jeugdinstituut / Defence for Children. Geraadpleegd via: https://www.nji.nl/nl/Download-NJi/Publicatie-NJi/Mulock-Houwer-lezing-Wanneer-ouders-eenverkeerde-keuze-maken.pdf
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Van de Weijer, S., & Spapens, T. (2019). Intergenerationele overdracht en criminele families: introductie. Tijdschrift voor Criminologie, 61(2), 119-131.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Van Wieringen, L., Weggemans, D.J., Krüsselmann, K. & Liem, M.C.A. (2021). Van Ouder op Kind. Den Haag: Wetenschappelijk Onderzoeks- en Documentatiecentrum.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Van Wijk, A., Bremmers, B., Hardeman, M., Appelman, T., & Ferwerda, H. (2013). Het warme bad en de koude douche. Den Haag: WODC.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Vollhardt, J. (2020). The Social Psychology of Collective Victimhood. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Wood, N. R. (2018). Attitudes Towards Racism in KKK Forums: Denouncement, Avoidance, and Neutralization. John Jay College, New York.
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Young, E.A. (2012). The use of the ‘Brainwashing’ Theory by the Anti-cult Movement in the United States of America, pre-1996. Zeitschrift für junge Religionswissenschaft, 7, 5-19.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/MEM2022.4.005.WIER
Loading
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error