2004
Volume 40, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 1567-7109
  • E-ISSN: 2468-1652

Abstract

Abstract

Adolescents have been taking suggestive and explicitly sexual pictures of themselves for others since instant cameras were around. But since the introduction of smartphones and social media platforms, the speed of making and sending material and the opportunity for sharing have risen strongly. Sexting comes with risks, though. Although general risk communication has made adolescents more aware of the general risks of sexting, they should become more aware of the fact that sext receivers can make screenshots and might share this material at some point with others, without permission. To gather insight into adolescents’ sexting-related risk awareness, perceptions, and behaviors and how schools can design effective education to make students more resilient against the risks of shame sexting (making and/or spreading sexual images or videos without permission of the featured person) and sextorting (the use of such images and videos as means of coercion to gain money or sexual acts from the victim), we conducted a questionnaire-based study involving a population sample (N = 188) of young people between fifteen and twenty-one years of age at a school for intermediate vocational education in the eastern part of the Netherlands. The students prefer education about the risks of sexting based on authentic victim stories and want to know who to turn to in case of falling victim of shame sexting or sextortion. We raise suggestions on how to realize effective education on the risks of sexting in classrooms and supply possibilities for future research.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/PED2020.3.002.SPIT
2021-03-01
2021-06-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/15677109/40/3/02_PED2020.3_SPIT.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5117/PED2020.3.002.SPIT&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Babbie, E.(1998). The practice of social research. Belmont: Wadsworth.
  2. Billiet, J.(2006). Cycli in het empirisch onderzoek. In J.Billiet & H.Waege (red.), Een samenleving onderzocht (pp. 33-64). Antwerpen: De Boeck.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Bianchi, D., Morelli, M., Baiocco, R., Cattelino, E., Laghi, F., & Chirumbolo, A.(2019). Family functioning patterns predict teenage girls’ sexting. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 43(6), 507-514.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boeije, H.(2005). Soorten van onderzoek: De grote parade. In H.’t Hart; H.Boeije & J.Hox (red.), Onderzoeksmethoden (pp. 61-92). Den Haag: Boom Onderwijs.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. CBS
    CBS(2019). Digitale Veiligheid & Criminaliteit. Den Haag: CBS.
  6. Cense, M., De Grauw, S., & Vermeulen, M.(2019). “Gewoon het taboe eraf halen”. Wat leerlingen willen van seksuele vorming. Utrecht: Rutgers Stichting.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Choi, H.J., Mori, C., Van Ouytsel, J., Madigan, S., & Temple, J.R.(2019). Adolescent sexting involvement over 4 years and associations with sexual activity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(6), 738-744.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Cleiren, C.P.M., Ten Voorde, J.M., & Waas, W.V.(2019). Strafbaarstelling van sexchatting en sextortion onder de loep. De meerwaarde van een empirisch perspectief. Strafblad, 2, 69-76.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. D’Antona, R., Kevorkian, M., & Russom, A.(2010). Sexting, texting, cyberbullying and keeping youth safe online. Journal of Social Sciences, 6(4), 523-528.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. De Graaf, H., Van den Borne, M., Nikkelen, S., Twisk, D., & Meijer, S.(2017). Seks onder je 25e. Seksuele gezondheid van jongeren in Nederland anno 2017. Utrecht/Amsterdam: Rutgers/SOA AIDS Nederland.
  11. De Graaf, H., & Vanwesenbeeck, I.(2006). ‘Seks is een game.’ Gewenste en ongewenste seksuele ervaringen van jongeren op internet. Utrecht:Rutgers Nisso Groep.
  12. Dobson, A.S.(2019). ‘The Things You Didn’t Do’: Gender, slut-shaming, and the need to address sexual harassment in narrative resources responding to sexting and cyberbullying. In H.Vandebosch & L.Green (eds), Narratives in research and interventions on cyberbullying among young people (pp. 147-160). Cham: Springer.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Dolev-Cohen, M., & Ricon, T.(2020). Demystifying sexting: Adolescent sexting and its associations with parenting styles and sense of parental social control in Israel. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 14(1), article 6.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Doornwaard, S.M., Den Boer, F.,Vanwesenbeeck, I., Van Nijnatten, C.H.C.J., Ter Bogt, T.F.M., & Van den Eijnden, R.J.J.M.(2017). Dutch adolescents’ motives, perceptions, and reflections toward sex-related internet use: Results of a web-based focus-group study, The Journal of Sex Research, 54 (8), 1038-1050.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Englander, E.(2015). Coerced sexting and revenge porn among teens. Bullying, Teen Aggression & Social Media, 1(2), 19-21.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Friedman, S.H., Sorrentino, R.M., & Friedman, J.B.(2017). Sexting: What are the clinical and legal implications?Current Psychiatry, 16(12), 35-41.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Gámez-Guadix, M., & Mateos-Pérez, E.(2019). Longitudinal and reciprocal relationships between sexting, online sexual solicitations, and cyberbullying among minors. Computers in Human Behavior, 94, 70-76.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J.W.(2010). Sexting: A brief guide for educators and parents. Cyberbullying Research Center, 1-4.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Holt, T.J., Bossler, A.M., & Seigfried-Spellar, K.C.(2018). Cybercrime and digital forensics. An introduction. London: Routledge.
  20. Kopecký, K.(2014). Cyberbullying and sexting between children and adolescents – comparative study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 149, 467-471.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Kopecký, K., & Szotkowski, R.(2013). Cyberbullying, sexting and establishment of risky contacts by Szech children within the internet environment – research and prevention. International Journal of Science and Research, 4(5), 1-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Krieger, M.A.(2017). Unpacking “sexting”: A systematic review of nonconsensual sexting in legal, educational, and psychological literatures. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 18(5), 593-601.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Lee, M., & Crofts, T.(2015). Gender, pressure, coercion and pleasure: Untangling motivations for sexting between young people. British Journal of Criminology, 55(3), 454-473.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Lievens, E.(2014). Bullying and sexting in social networks: Protecting minors from criminal acts or empowering minors to cope with risky behaviour?International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 42(3), 251-270.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Machimbarrena, J.M., Calvete, E., Fernández-González, L., Álvarez-Bardón, A., Álvarez-Fernández, L., & González-Cabrera, J.(2018). Internet risks: An overview of victimization in cyberbullying, cyber dating abuse, sexting, online grooming and problematic internet use. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(11), 2471.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Maheux, A.J., Evans, R., Widman, L., Nesi, J., Prinstein, M.J., & Choukas-Bradley, S.(2020). Popular peer norms and adolescent sexting behavior. Journal of Adolescence, 78, 62-66.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. McEachern, A.G., McEachern-Ciattoni, R.T., & Martin, F.(2012). Sexting: New challenges for schools and professional school counselors. Journal of School Counseling, 10(20), n20.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. McLoughlin, C., & Burgess, J.(2009). Texting, sexting and social networking among Australian youth and the need for cyber safety education. In Proceedings of AARE International Education Research Conference. Canberra: Australian Association for Research in Education, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Medrano, J.L.J., Lopez Rosales, F., & Gámez-Guadix, M.(2018). Assessing the links of sexting, cybervictimization, depression, and suicidal ideation among university students. Archives of suicide research, 22(1), 153-164.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Misana-ter Huurne, E.F.J., Van Houten, Y.A., Spithoven, R., Notté, R.J. & Leukfeldt, E.R.(2020). Cyberweerbaarheid. Risicobewustzijn en zelfbeschermend gedrag rondom cybercriminaliteit onder jongeren en mkb’ers. Deventer/Den Haag: Lectoraat Maatschappelijke Veiligheid, Hogeschool Saxion & Lectoraat Cybersecurity in het mkb, De Haagse Hogeschool.
  31. Mitchell, K.J., Finkelhor, D., Jones, L.M., & Wolak, J.(2012). Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: A national study. Pediatrics, 129(1), 13-20.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Naezer, M.(2018). From risky behaviour to sexy adventures: Reconceptualising young people’s online sexual activities. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 20(6), 715-729.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Naezer, M.(2019). Jongeren, sexting en seksueel grensoverschrijdend gedrag. Bijblijven, 35(6-7), 93-99.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Patchin, J.W., & Hinduja, S.(2020). It is time to teach safe sexting. Journal of Adolescent Health, 66(2), 140-143.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Powell, A., Flynn, A., & Henry, N.(2020). Sexual violence in digital society. Understanding the human and technosocial factors. In E.R.Leukfeldt & T.J.Holt (eds.), The human factor of cybercrime (pp. 134-155). London: Routledge.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Siegle, D.(2010). Cyberbullying and sexting: Technology abuses of the 21st century. Gifted Child Today, 33(2), 14-65.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Smith, P.K., Thompson, F., & Davidson, J.(2014). Cyber safety for adolescent girls: Bullying, harassment, sexting, pornography, and solicitation. Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 26(5), 360-365.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Spithoven, R.(2018). Het zal je dochter maar zijn – Op zoek naar verklaringen voor de maatschappelijke impact van drie zaken van dodelijk seksueel geweld tegen jonge vrouwen in 2017. Proces, 97(6), 422-433.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Spithoven, R.(2020). Verbonden risico’s. Maatschappelijke veiligheid in de black box society. Den Haag: Boom Criminologie.
  40. Van Ouytsel, J., Walrave, M., & Van Gool, E. (2014a). Sexting: Between thrill and fear—How schools can respond. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 87(5), 204-212.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Van Ouytsel, J., Walrave, M., Ponnet, K., Heirman, W., & d'Haenens, L. (2014b). Prevalentie van sexting bij Vlaamse jongeren: een verkennende studie. Tijdschrift voor Orthopedagogiek, Kinderpsychiatrie en Klinische Kinderpsychologie, 39(4), 114-126.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Van Ouytsel, J., Walrave, M., Ponnet, K., & Temple, J.R. (2019a). Sexting. The International Encyclopedia of Media Literacy, 1-6.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Van Ouytsel, J., Madigan, S., Ponnet, K., Walrave, M., & Temple, J. R. (2019b). Adolescent sexting: myths, facts, and advice. NASN School Nurse, 34(6), 345-350.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Weinstein, N.D.(1980). Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 806-820.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Weinstein, N.D.(1998). Optimistic biases about risk and future life events. New Jersey: Department of Human Ecology, Rutgers University.
  46. Weinstein, N.D., & Lyon, J.E.(1999). Mindset, optimistic bias about personal risk and health‐protective behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 4(4), 289-300.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Williams, J.L.(2011). Teens, Sexts & Cyberspace: The Constitutional Implications of Current Sexting & Cyberbullying Laws. William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal, 20(3), 1017-1050.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/PED2020.3.002.SPIT
Loading
/content/journals/10.5117/PED2020.3.002.SPIT
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): resilience; risk awareness; sexting; sextortion; youth
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error