2004
Volume 1, Issue 1
  • E-ISSN: 1388-1302

Abstract

Abstract

Dit artikel brengt de heterogeniteit van zelfstandigen zonder personeel (zzp’ers) in kaart vanuit een loopbaanperspectief en geeft opdrachtgevers inzicht in hoe zij met behulp van inclusief HR-beleid op duurzame wijze kunnen samenwerken met zzp’ers. Hoewel Nederland meer dan 1,2 miljoen zzp’ers telt, worden zij vaak meegenomen in de veelomvattende categorie ‘zelfstandigen’ waar ook ondernemers met personeel zich bevinden. Anderzijds vallen zzp’ers vaak in de categorie ‘flexibele arbeidskrachten’ waarin ook seizoenwerkers en uitzendkrachten thuishoren. Dit artikel bediscussieert aan de hand van een conceptueel model waarom het waardevol is zzp’ers als een apart type werkenden te beschouwen en presenteert vervolgens een empirische kwalitatieve studie die de heterogeniteit binnen de groep zzp’ers duidt vanuit een loopbaanperspectief. De bevindingen geven ten eerste conceptueel weer dat de loopbaan van zzp’ers bestaat uit vijf loopbaanfasen, elk gekenmerkt door specifieke uitdagingen. Deze uitdagingen hebben te maken met de professionele ontwikkeling van het zelfstandige individu en met de ontwikkeling van de business. Ten tweede tonen de bevindingen aan dat zzp’ers verschillen in de manier waarop zij hun loopbaan vormgeven. Zo blijkt dat zzp’ers kunnen worden ingedeeld in vier groepen die elk een verschillend loopbaanpatroon vertonen: (1) , (2) , (3) , en (4) . Op basis van meer inzicht in de heterogeniteit van zzp’ers en hun loopbanen biedt dit onderzoek handvatten om de duurzame inzetbaarheid van zzp’ers vanuit een HR-perspectief te waarborgen en waar mogelijk te vergroten.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/THRM2023.1.001.GROE
2023-01-17
2023-01-28
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/13881302/1/1/THRM2023.1.001.GROE.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5117/THRM2023.1.001.GROE&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. AkkermansJ., BrenninkmeijerV., HuibersM., & Blonk, R. W. (2013). Competencies for the contemporary career: Development and preliminary validation of the Career Competencies Questionnaire. Journal of Career Development 40(3), 245-267. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845312467501
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Akkermans, J., & Kubasch, S. (2017). # Trending topics in careers: a review and future research agenda. Career Development International, 22(6), 586-627. 10.1108/CDI-08-2017-0143
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Akkermans, J., Seibert, S.E., & Mol, S.T. (2018). Tales of the unexpected: Integrating career shocks in the contemporary careers literature. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology/SA Tydskrif vir Bedryfsielkunde, 44(0), a1503.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Barlage, M., van den Born, A., & van Witteloostuijn, A. (2019). The needs of freelancers and the characteristics of ‘gigs’: Creating beneficial relations between freelancers and their hiring organizations. Emerald Open Research, 1(8), 1-19. https://doi.org/10.12688/emeraldopenres.12928.1
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Barba-Sánchez, V., & Atienza-Sahuquillo, C. (2017). Entrepreneurial motivation and self-employment: evidence from expectancy theory. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 13, 1097-1115. 10.1007/s11365-017-0441-z
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Baron, R. A. (2002). OB and entrepreneurship: The reciprocal benefits of closer conceptual links. Research in Organizational Behavior, 24, 225-269.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Baruch, Y., & Vardi, Y. (2016). A fresh look at the dark side of contemporary careers: Toward a realistic discourse. British Journal of Management, 27(2), 355-372. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12107
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Benaquisto, L., & Given, L. (2008). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Sage
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Bögenhold, D., & Klinglmair, A. (2016). Independent work, modern organizations and entrepreneurial labor: Diversity and hybridity of freelancers and self-employment. Journal of Management & Organization, 22(6), 843-858. 10.1017/jmo.2016.29
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Burton, M. D., Sørensen, J. B., & Dobrev, S. D. (2016). A careers perspective on entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 40(2), 237-247. https://doi.org/10.1111/etap.12230
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Burke, A. E. (Eds.). (2015). The Handbook of Research on Freelancing and Self-Employment. Senate Hall Academic Publishing.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Burke, A. E. (2019). The Freelance Project and Gig Economies of the 21st Century. CRSE.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Burke, A. E., FitzRoy, F. R., & Nolan, M. A. (2008). What makes a die-hard entrepreneur? Beyond the ‘employee or entrepreneur’ dichotomy. Small Business Economics, 31(2), 93-115. 10.1007/s11187-007-9086-6
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek [CBS] (2018) Is Elders in de EU het Aandeel ZZP’ers zo Hoog als in Nederland?
  15. Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. (2022, 15december). Aantal zzp’ers gegroeid naar 1,2 miljoen in derde kwartaal van 2022. https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2022/50/aantalzzp-ers-gegroeid-naar-1-2-miljoen-in-derde-kwartaal-van-2022
  16. Cieślik, J., & Dvouletý, O. (2019). Segmentation of the Population of the Solo Self-employed. International Review of Entrepreneurship, 17(3), 281-304.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Constantinou, C. S., Georgiou, M., & Perdikogianni, M. (2017). A comparative method for themes saturation (CoMeTS) in qualitative interviews. Qualitative Research, 17(5), 571-588. https://doi.org/10.1177/1468794116686650
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Dalton, G. W., Thompson, P. H., & Price, R. L. (1977). The Four Stages of Professional Careers – A New Look at Performance by Professionals. Organizational Dynamic, 6(1), 19-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(77)90033-X
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Dawson, C., & Henley, A. (2012). “Push” versus “pull” entrepreneurship: an ambiguous distinction? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 18(6), 697-719. 10.1108/13552551211268139
    [Google Scholar]
  20. De Vos, A., & Soens, N. (2008). Protean attitude and career success: The mediating role of self-management. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(3), 449-456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2008.08.007
    [Google Scholar]
  21. De Vos, A., & Van der Heijden, B. I. (2017). Current thinking on contemporary careers: the key roles of sustainable HRM and sustainability of careers. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 28, 41-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2017.07.003
    [Google Scholar]
  22. De Vos, A., Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M., & Akkermans, J. (2020). Sustainable careers: Towards a conceptual model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 117, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2018.06.011
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 19(2), 109-134.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Dyer Jr, W. G. (1994). Toward a theory of entrepreneurial careers. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 19(2), 7-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225879401900105
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Engel, Y., Van Burg, J. C., Kleijn, E., & Khapova, S. N. (2017). Past career in future thinking: How career management practices shape entrepreneurial decision-making. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 11(2), 122-144. https://doi.org/10.1002/sej.1243
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Fleisher, C. (2014). The contemporary career navigator: Individual and organizational outcomes of self-directed career management (Doctoral dissertation).
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Freese, C. & Borghouts, I. (2021). Hoe past inclusief werkgeven in de organisatiestrategie? Boekhoofstuk in Inclusief HRM.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Fritsch, M., Sorgner, A., & Wyrwich, M. (2019). Self-employment and well-being across institutional contexts. Journal of Business Venturing, 34, 105946. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2019.105946
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Forret, M. L., & Dougherty, T. W. (2001). Correlates of networking behavior for managerial and professional employees. Group & Organization Management, 26(3), 283-311. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601101263004
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Forrier, A., De Cuyper, N., & Akkermans, J. (2018). The winner takes it all, the loser has to fall: Provoking the agency perspective in employability research. Human Resource Management Journal, 28(4), 511-523. https://doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12206
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Goodman, L. A. (1961). Snowball sampling. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 32(1), 148-170. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2237615
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Gorgievski, M. J., & Stephan, U. (2016). Advancing the psychology of entrepreneurship: a review of the psychological literature and an introduction. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 65(3), 437-468. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12073
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Greco, S., Masciari, E., & Pontieri, L. (2001). Combining inductive and deductive tools for data analysis. AI Communications, 14(2), 69-82.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Grimmius, T., Rossetti, S., De Ruiter, M., & Vroonhof, P. (2020). Inkomensalternatieven van zelfstandigen zonder personeel [Income alternatives of solo self-employed workers]. Panteia.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Hanks, S. (1990). An empirical examination of the organizational life cycle in high technology firms. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Utah.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Hormozi, A. M. (2004). Becoming an entrepreneur: How to start a small business. International Journal of Management, 21(3), 278-285.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Jansen, G. (2019). Self-employment as atypical or autonomous work: diverging effects on political orientations. Socio-Economic Review, 17(2), 381-407. https://doi.org/10.1093/ser/mww017
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Jayawarna, D., Rouse, J., & Kitching, J. (2011). Entrepreneur motivations and life course. International Small Business Journal, 31(1), 34-56. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242611401444
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Katz, L. F., & Krueger, A. B. (2019). The rise and nature of alternative work arrangements in the United States, 1995–2015. ILR Review, 72(2), 382-416. https://doi.org/10.1177/0019793918820008
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Kimberly, J. R., Kimberly, J., & Miles, R. H. (1980). The organizational life cycle: Issues in the creation, transformation, and decline of organizations. Jossey-Bass Inc Pub.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. King, Z. (2004). Career self-management: Its nature, causes and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 112-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00052-6
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Kooij, D. T. A. M. (2015). Successful aging at work: The active role of employees. Work, Aging and Retirement, 1(4), 309-319. https://doi.org/10.1093/workar/wav018
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Kossek, E. E., Roberts, K., Fisher, S., & Demarr, B. (1998), Career self-management: A quasi experimental assessment of the effects of a training intervention. Personnel Psychology, 51(4), 935-960. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1998.tb00746.x
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Kozica, A., Bonss, U., & Kaiser, S. (2014). Freelancers and the absorption of external knowledge: practical implications and theoretical contributions. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 12(4), 421-431. https://doi.org/10.1057/kmrp.2013.2
    [Google Scholar]
  45. Lazear, E. P. (2004). Balanced skills and entrepreneurship. The American Economic Review, 94(2), 208-211. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3592884
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Lawrence, B. S., Hall, D. T., & Arthur, M. B. (2015). Sustainable careers then and now. In De Vos, A., & Van der Heijden, B. I. J. M. (Eds.) Handbook of Research on Sustainable Careers. EdwardElgar, 432-449.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Mallin, M. L., Ragland, C. B., & Finkle, T. A. (2014). The Proactive Behavior of Younger Salespeople: Antecedents and Outcomes. Journal of Marketing Channels, 21(4), 268-278. https://doi.org/10.1080/1046669X.2014.945359
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Moriano, J. A., Gorgievski, M., Laguna, M., Stephan, U., & Zarafshani, K. (2012). A cross cultural approach to understanding entrepreneurial intention. Journal of Career Development, 39(2), 162-185. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894845310384481
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Murgia, A., & Pulignano, V. (2019). Neither precarious nor entrepreneur: the subjective experience of hybrid self-employed workers. Economic and Industrial Democracy, 1-27. https://doi.org/10.1177/0143831X19873966
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Naffziger, D. W., Hornsby, J. S., & Kuratko, D. F. (1994). A proposed research model of entrepreneurial motivation. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 18 (Spring), 29-42. https://doi.org/10.1177/104225879401800303
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Noe, R. A. (1996). Is career management related to employee development and performance? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 119–133. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199603)17:2<119::AID-JOB736>3.0.CO;2O
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Obraztsova, O., & Chepurenko, A. (2010). Entrepreneurship and socio-economic development in cross countries analysis. Strategic Entrepreneurship–The Promise for Future. Entrepreneurship, Family Business and SME Research.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. OECD (2016), Self-employed without employees (indicator). 10.1787/5d5d0d63-en
  54. O’Mahony, S., & Bechky, B. A. (2006). Stretchwork: Managing the career progression paradox in external labor markets. Academy of Management Journal, 49(5), 918-941. 10.5465/AMJ.2006.22798174
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Oplatka, I. (2004). The principal’s career stage: An absent element in leadership perspectives. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 7(1), 43-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360312032000154540
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Parker, P., Khapova, S. N., & Arthur, M. B. (2009). The intelligent career framework as a basis for interdisciplinary inquiry. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75(3), 291-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.04.001
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Pérez-López, M. C., González-López, M. J., & Rodríguez-Ariza, L. (2016). Competencies for entrepreneurship as a career option in a challenging employment environment. Career Development International, 21(3), 214-229. 10.1108/CDI-07-2015-0102
    [Google Scholar]
  58. Quigley, N. R., & Tymon, W. G. (2006). Toward an integrated model of intrinsic motivation and career self-management. Career Development International, 11(6), 522-543. 10.1108/13620430610692935
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Rennekamp, R. A., & Nall, M. A. (1994). Growing through the stages: A new look at professional growth. Journal of Extension, 32(1).
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Richardson, J., & McKenna, S. (2020). An exploration of career sustainability in and after professional sport. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 117, 1-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2019.06.002
    [Google Scholar]
  61. Rondeel, M. & Wagenaar, S. (2002). Kennis Maken – Leren in gezelschap [Become Acquainted Learning in company]. Scriptum.
    [Google Scholar]
  62. Rossetti, S., & Hertter, S. E. (2019). The collective risk management of solo self-employed in the Netherlands. Journal of Poverty and Social Justice, 27(2), 253-277. https://doi.org/10.1332/175982719X15538489216856
    [Google Scholar]
  63. Schein, E. H. (1971). The individual, the organization, and the career: A conceptual scheme. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 7(4), 401-426.
    [Google Scholar]
  64. Schonfeld, I. S., & Mazzola, J. J. (2015). A qualitative study of stress in individuals self-employed in solo businesses. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 20(4), 501-513. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038804
    [Google Scholar]
  65. Sorgner, A., & Fritsch, M. (2018). Entrepreneurial career paths: occupational context and the propensity to become self-employed. Small Business Economics, 51, 129-152. 10.1007/s11187-017-9917-z
    [Google Scholar]
  66. Sturges, J., Conway, N., & Liefooghe, A. (2010). Organizational support, individual attributes, and the practice of career self-management behavior. Group & Organization Management, 35(1), 108-141. https://doi.org/10.1177/1059601109354837
    [Google Scholar]
  67. Sullivan, S. E., & Baruch, Y. (2009). Advances in career theory and research: A critical review and agenda for future exploration. Journal of management, 35(6), 1542-1571.
    [Google Scholar]
  68. Super, D. E., & Hall, D. T. (1978). Career development: Exploration and planning. Annual Review of Psychology, 29(1), 333-372. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ps.29.020178.002001
    [Google Scholar]
  69. Teddlie, C., & Yu, F. (2007). Mixed methods sampling: A typology with examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(1), 77-100. https://doi.org/10.1177/1558689806292430
    [Google Scholar]
  70. Tuckman, B. W. (1974). An age-graded model for career development education. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 4(2), 193-212.
    [Google Scholar]
  71. Wagner, J. (2003). Testing Lazear’s jack-of-all-trades view of entrepreneurship with German micro data. Applied Economics Letters, 10(11), 687-689. https://doi.org/10.1080/1350485032000133273
    [Google Scholar]
  72. Weggeman, M. (2007). Leidinggeven aan professionals? Niet doen! [Managing Professionals? Don’t do it!]. Scriptum.
    [Google Scholar]
  73. Van Gelderen, M., Brand, M., Van Praag, M., Bodewes, W., Poutsma, E., & Van Gils, A. (2008). Explaining entrepreneurial intentions by means of the theory of planned behaviour. Career Development International, 13(6), 538-559. 10.1108/13620430810901688
    [Google Scholar]
  74. Van Stel, A., & De Vries, N. (2015). The economic value of different types of solo self-employed: A review. The Handbook of Research on Freelancing and Self Employment. Senate Hall Academic Publishing (pp. 77-84).
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/THRM2023.1.001.GROE
Loading
/content/journals/10.5117/THRM2023.1.001.GROE
Loading

Data & Media loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error