Volume 91, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0025-9454
  • E-ISSN: 1876-2816



We model three forms of homonegativity among Dutch secondary school students: overall deprecation of same-sex love, dislike of kissing in public between two persons of the same sex, and keeping homosexuals at a distance. Guided by the hypothesis that stronger integration into any of society’s groups makes for more adherence to any of their norms, we estimate effects of individual education, ethnicity and sex, as well as several settings (contexts), like the composition of the student population of schools and their classes, a school’s sexual diversity program, friends, neighbourhoods, parents, and sport clubs. Parameters of cross-classified linear regression models show that education has a weaker impact than several settings. Students with gayfriendly parents and friends are more positive themselves, while students in classes with many homonegative students are more homonegative. Male, but not female, students who sport intensively are more homonegative. School programs on sexual diversity lower homonegativity of individual students by way of fewer homonegative classmates.


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