Onderwijsdifferentiatie en leerlingproblemen in Nederland, 1916-2015 | Amsterdam University Press Journals Online
Volume 91, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0025-9454
  • E-ISSN: 1876-2816



This review concentrates on problem analyses and research concerning educational differentiation and student problems carried out in the Netherlands between 1916 and 2015. The goal is to examine systemic educational causes of student achievement and motivation problems, to evaluate educational proposals to reduce these problems, and to check the effects of measures to reduce the problems in school practice. Results demonstrate the existence of four categories of educational differentiation and student problems: 1) age-based differentiation and systemic measures to reduce student problems; 2) age-based differentiation and non-systemic measures to reduce student problems; 3) special education for students with specific educational needs; 4) individualized education in specific schools. Review outcomes indicate a lack of permanent problem reduction in the first three categories in particular. It is suggested to systemically develop ‘Optimal Education’ for each student.


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