2004
Volume 96, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0025-9454
  • E-ISSN: 1876-2816

Abstract

Abstract

This paper focusses on the experiences of Syrian refugee youth in Rotterdam with the first school closure (spring 2020), due to COVID-19 policy measures. Based on repeated qualitative interviews with 19 boys and girls – before, during and after the school closure – we examine how Syrian refugee youth have experienced the school closure, and how this influence their educational position by using the four central tasks of education of Van de Werfhorst and Mijs (2010). Syrian refugee youth in our study emphasize that online education is more difficult to understand and stress they miss their friends at school. Moreover, their circumstances at home are not ideal for online learning, and therefore reaching the appropriate level of education becomes harder. This paper highlights the importance of the social aspect of education. Whereas going to school normally also stimulate friendships and their socialization in Dutch society, the school closure makes this more challenging. Especially for refugee youth school has extra relevance for reasons of e.g. mental health, resiliency, and socialization. Through our case studies, we argue that the school closure contributes to an accumulation of risks and inequalities. We conclude that the school closure will likely increase educational inequality for young people with a refugee background and makes their educational position more vulnerable.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.5117/MEM2021.3.005.VAND
2021-09-01
2021-11-30
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/00259454/96/3/05_MEM2021.3_VAND.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.5117/MEM2021.3.005.VAND&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Armitage, R. & Nellums, L.B.(2020). Considering inequalities in the school closure response to COVID-19. The Lancet Global Health, 8(5), e644. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30116-9
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Bol, T.(2020). Inequality in homeschooling during the Corona crisis in the Netherlands. First results from the LISS Panel. SocArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31235/osf.io/hf32q
  3. Bol, T. & van de Werfhorst, H.G.(2013). The measurement of tracking, vocational orientation, and standardization of educational systems: A comparative approach. AIAS.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Brooks, S.K., Webster, R.K., Smith, L.E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N. & Rubin, G.J.(2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912-920. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Bryman, A.(2008). Social Research Methods (Third edition). Oxford University Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Correa-Velez, I., Gifford, S.M. & Barnett, A.G.(2010). Longing to belong: Social inclusion and wellbeing among youth with refugee backgrounds in the first three years in Melbourne, Australia. Social Science & Medicine, 71(8), 1399-1408. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.07.018
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Crul, M., Keskiner, E., Schneider, J., Lelie, F. & Ghaeminia, S.(2016). No lost generation: Education for refugee children. A comparison between Sweden, Germany, The Netherlands and Turkey. EUI Forum on Migration, Citizenship and Demography, Florence.
  8. De Haene, L., Loots, G. & Durluyn, I.(2014). Vluchtelingenkinderen en -jongeren. https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/5816963/file/5816966
  9. Didkowsky, N., Ungar, M. & Liebenberg, L.(2010). Using visual methods to capture embedded processes of resilience for youth across cultures and contexts. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19(1), 12-18.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Dvorsky, M.R., Breaux, R. & Becker, S.P.(2020). Finding ordinary magic in extraordinary times: Child and adolescent resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-020-01583-8
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Ellis, W.E., Dumas, T.M. & Forbes, L.M.(2020). Physically isolated but socially connected: Psychological adjustment and stress among adolescents during the initial COVID-19 crisis. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science / Revue Canadienne Des Sciences Du Comportement, 52(3), 177-187. https://doi.org/10.1037/cbs0000215
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Engbersen, G., Van Bochove, M., de Boom, J., Burgers, J., Custers, G., Özcan, E., Krouwel, A., van Lindert, J., Snel, E., van Toorn, M., van Wensveen, P. & Wentink, T.(2020). De bedreigde stad. De maatschappelijke impact van COVID-19 op Rotterdam. Kenniswerkplaats Leefbare Wijken.
  13. Ent, B. van der(2020). Kinderen uit Syrië in Rotterdam. Een surveyonderzoek onder 10- tot en met 15-jarigen over hun leven in Nederland (No. 5; Bridge Project Statushouders in Rotterdam). Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Ent, B. van der(2021). Kinderen en jongeren uit Syrië: Voelen zij zich thuis in Rotterdam? In J.Dagevos & M.Van der Linden (Eds.), ‘Met alles opnieuw starten’. De integratie van statushouders in Rotterdam en de werking van het SNTR-programma. Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Ent, B. van der, Dagevos, J. & Stam, T.(2020). Syrian-born children with a refugee background in Rotterdam. A child-centred approach to explore their social contacts and the experienced social climate in the Netherlands. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 15((2)), 1721985. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482631.2020.1721985
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Fazel, M., Reed, R.V., Panter-Brick, C. & Stein, A.(2012). Mental health of displaced and refugee children resettled in high-income countries: Risk and protective factors. The Lancet, 379(9812), 266-282. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60051-2
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Fegert, J.M., Vitiello, B., Plener, P.L. & Clemens, V.(2020). Challenges and burden of the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID‑19) pandemic for child and adolescent mental health: A narrative review to highlight clinical and research needs in the acute phase and the long return to normality. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 14(20). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-020-00329-3
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Fujii, M., Hüttmann, J., Kutscher, N. & Friedrichs-Liesenkötter, H.(2020). Participation?! Educational challenges for young refugees in times of the COVID-19 pandemic. Media Education, 11, 37-47. https://doi.org/10.36253/me-9605
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Gallagher, M.(2012). Data collection and analysis. In Researching with children and young people: Research design, methods and analysis (pp. 1-35). SAGE Publications Ltd. 10.4135/9781446268315
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Ghaeminia, S., Ghorashi, H. & Crul, M.(2017). Grootste dromen, uitgekomen? Kansen en obstakels in de schoolloopbaan van alleenstaande minderjarige asielzoekers. Mens & Maatschappij, 92(4), 421-445.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Golberstein, E., Wen, H. & Miller, B.F.(2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and mental health for children and adolescents. JAMA Pediatrics, 174(9), 819. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1456
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Hasselt, M. van & de Kruyf, D.(2009). Doorstroom ISK–VO. CED Groep.
  23. Ingleby, D. & Kramer, S.(2012). Country report Netherlands. In A.Nonchev & N.Tagarov (Eds.), Integrating refugee and asylum seeking children in the educational systems of EU member states. Center for the Study of Democracy.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Johnson, G.A., Pfister, A.E. & Vindrola-Padros, C.(2012). Drawings, photos, and performances: Using visual methods with children. Visual Anthropology Review, 28(2), 164-178. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1548-7458.2012.01122.x
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Kia-Keating, M. & Ellis, B. H.(2007). Belonging and connection to school in resettlement: Young refugees, school belonging, and psychosocial adjustment. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 12(1), 29-43. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104507071052
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Klok, J., van der Linden, M. & Dagevos, J.(2020). Stappen vooruit. Veranderingen in integratie van Rotterdamse statushouders tussen 2017/2018 en 2019 (Nr. 4; Bridge Project Statushouders in Rotterdam). Erasmus University Rotterdam.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Kollender, E. & Nimer, M.(2020). Long-term exclusionary effects of COVID-19 for refugee children in the German and Turkish education systems: A comparative perspective. 12.
  28. Lynnebakke, B. & Pastoor, L. de W. (2020). “It’s very hard, but I’ll manage.” Educational aspirations and educational resilience among recently resettled young refugees in Norwegian upper secondary schools. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 15(sup2), 1785694. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482631.2020.1785694
    [Google Scholar]
  29. McBrien, J.L.(2005). Educational needs and barriers for refugee students in the United States: A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 75(3), 329-364. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543075003329
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Oh, S.-A.(2012). Photofriend: Creating visual ethnography with refugee children. Area, 44(3), 382-288. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4762.2012.01111.x
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Onderwijsraad. (2017). Vluchtelingen en onderwijs. Naar een efficiëntere organisatie, betere toegankelijkheid en hogere kwaliteit. Onderwijsraad.
  32. Osman, F., Mohamed, A., Warner, G. & Sarkadi, A.(2020). Longing for a sense of belonging – Somali immigrant adolescents’ experiences of their acculturation efforts in Sweden. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 15(sup2), 1784532. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482631.2020.1784532
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Primdahl, N.L., Borsch, A.S., Verelst, A., Jervelund, S.S., Derluyn, I. & Skovdal, M.(2020). ‘It’s difficult to help when I am not sitting next to them’: How COVID-19 school closures interrupted teachers’ care for newly arrived migrant and refugee learners in Denmark. Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1080/17450128.2020.1829228
    [Google Scholar]
  34. SCP(2020). Eerste doordenking maatschappelijke gevolgen coronamaatregelen. Beleidssignalement. (Maatschappelijke Effecten Corona). Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau.
  35. Settersten, R.A., Bernardi, L., Härkönen, J., Antonucci, T.C., Dykstra, P.A., Heckhausen, J., Kuh, D., Mayer, K.U., Moen, P., Mortimer, J.T., Mulder, C.H., Smeeding, T.M., van der Lippe, T., Hagestad, G.O., Kohli, M., Levy, R., Schoon, I. & Thomson, E.(2020). Understanding the effects of Covid-19 through a life course lens. Advances in Life Course Research, 45, 100360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcr.2020.100360
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Silverman, D.(2010). Interpreting qualitative data. Methods for analyzing talk, text and interaction. (Third edition). SAGE Publications Ltd.
  37. Sleijpen, M., Boeije, H.R., Kleber, R.J. & Mooren, T.(2016). Between power and powerlessness: A meta-ethnography of sources of resilience in young refugees. Ethnicity & Health, 21(2), 158-180. https://doi.org/10.1080/13557858.2015.1044946
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Stam, T.(2017). Reasons and resources: Understanding pupils’ aspirations in lower vocational Dutch education. Ethnography and Education, 12(3), 259-270. https://doi.org/10.1080/17457823.2016.1237880
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Stam, T.(2020). Wat een meisje wil: Een etnografische studie naar de beroepsaspiraties van ‘witte’ Nederlandse meisjes in het vmbo-basis- en -kaderonderwijs. Tijdschrift Sociologie, 1, 4-18. https://doi.org/10.38139/TS.2020.02
    [Google Scholar]
  40. Stavenuiter, M., Smits van Waesberghe, E., Noordhuizen, B. & Oostrik, S.(2016). Onderwijs en doorstroom naar de arbeidsmarkt van jonge nieuwkomers in Nederland. Een onderzoek naar jonge nieuwkomers van 13-23 jaar ten behoeve van het project K!X Works. Verwey-Jonker Instituut.
  41. Sylbing, S. & Gould, E.(2020). Klassen. HUMAN. https://www.human.nl/klassen/over-de-serie.html
  42. VO-raad. (2016). Asielkind leert onder zijn niveau. https://www.vo-raad.nl/nieuws/asielkind-leert-onder-zijn-niveau
  43. Wang, G., Zhang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhang, J. & Jiang, F.(2020). Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet, 395(10228), 945-947. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30547-X
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Werfhorst, H.G.van de & Mijs, J.J.B.(2010). Achievement inequality and the institutional structure of educational systems: A comparative perspective. Annual Review of Sociology, 36(1), 407-428. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102538
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.5117/MEM2021.3.005.VAND
Loading
/content/journals/10.5117/MEM2021.3.005.VAND
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): COVID-19; education; inequality; refugee youth; Rotterdam; Syrian

Most Cited This Month Most Cited RSS feed

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error