Volume 39, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 1567-7109
  • E-ISSN: 2468-1652



This paper offers a conceptual analysis of by describing how this word is used in ordinary language. It shows that the Dutch word has two different meanings and therefore expresses two different concepts. A first meaning clearly overlaps with the meaning of the word ‘upbringing’, even to such an extent that it is reasonable to assume that these terms express the same concept. It is a rather broad concept, as it covers a comprehensive whole of actions and practices, ranging from early childhood to the attainment of adulthood. The second meaning of , however, is very close to the meaning of ‘to discipline’, in particular if reference is made to adult interventions in the child’s life. Used in this way the term expresses a concept that pertains to individual actions and therefore, if compared with the concept of upbringing, is a much more narrow one. In a rather detailed analysis of both concepts their differences and similarities are revealed. It is shown that the disciplining activities that are covered by the second concept are only a relatively modest part of upbringing. Next to disciplining the child, upbringing covers many other types of actions, such as setting a good example to the child, encouraging the child to aspire to particular ideals, or creating a supposedly beneficial environment for the child.


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  • Article Type: Research Article
Keyword(s): adult-child; authority; conceptual analysis; discipline; upbringing
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